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Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities


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Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities

Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities

5th October 2021


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Despite legal and social advances in the past two decades, sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) people continue to face widespread discrimination and violence in many countries. This discrimination and violence lead to exclusion, which adversely impacts their lives, as well as the communities and economies in which they live.

A major barrier to addressing this stigma and sexual orientation and gender identity-based exclusion is the lack of SOGI-specific data. Robust, quantitative data on differential development experiences and outcomes of sexual and gender minorities—especially those in developing countries—is extremely thin. is paucity of data jeopardizes the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and countries' commitment to the principle of 'leaving no one behind' in the effort to end poverty and inequality.


Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities assesses the unique challenges that sexual and gender minorities face in six important areas: Criminalization and SOGI, Access to education, Access to the labour market, Access to public services and social protection, Civil and political inclusion, Protection from hate crimes.

This report offers numerous policy recommendations to prevent and eliminate discriminatory practices in all of the areas covered. It also seeks to influence legislative changes and support research on institutions and regulations that can ultimately lead to poverty reduction and shared prosperity. At the same time, it acknowledges that the mere existence of inclusive laws and regulations does not ensure that sexual and gender minorities are free from discrimination—the enforcement of those laws is crucial.


This publication, the first in a series of studies, will be expanded from the 16 countries included to a wider set of countries for more in-depth quantitative analysis and to identify possible correlations with socioeconomic outcomes. It will seek to deepen knowledge, facilitate peer learning of good practices, and encourage reforms to increase the inclusion of sexual and gender minorities.

Report by the World Bank


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