CHAPTER 9

CONCLUSION


This Report has reviewed the structure, design and implementation of Curriculum 2005 with a view to understanding what needs to be done to improve it. Its starting point is that the development of high level knowledge, skills and values among all South Africa´s citizens is a prerequisite for social justice, equity and development.

Although Curriculum 2005 inaugurated a new dispensation in education in South Africa, its implementation occurred in conditions that did not enable it to meet either social or personal educational goals. The immediate post-election context in which Curriculum 2005 was introduced was one of fiscal restraint and heightened social pressure for immediate and visible change. This context had an immediate and direct impact on how curriculum was formulated and implemented. In its formulation and design, Curriculum 2005 was too complex and insufficiently balanced. In its movement from policy to practice, Curriculum 2005 was stymied by lack of resources and capacity to implement. Sharp time-frames undercut efforts to reach and provide support to all teachers.

A new context has emerged in which it is possible to review the curriculum and its implementation and to plan in a manner which focuses on the long-term as well as the medium and short-term. In the short-term, curriculum change has suffered from the pressures of rapid social change. In the medium and long-term, the possibility exists for ensuring that an enabling and balanced curriculum aimed at social and personal transformation does come into being. For this reason it is vital that Curriculum 2005 in its current form is phased out and a new revised and streamlined curriculum based on the principles that have galvanised educational transformation in South Africa is phased in.

SOURCES USED

A. GOVERNMENT REPORTS
Department of Education

DOE (1995) Curriculum Framework for General and Further Education and Training Discussion Document Developed by the Consultative Forum on Curriculum (Pretoria)

DOE (1996) Lifelong Learning through a National Qualifications Framework: Report of the Ministerial Committee for Development Work on the NQF (Pretoria)

DOE (1997a) Curriculum 2005. Learning for the 21st Century (Pretoria)

DOE (1997b) Foundation Phase (Grades R to 3) Policy Document (Pretoria)

DOE (1997c) Intermediate Phase (Grades 4 to 6) Policy Document (Pretoria)

DOE (1997d) Senior Phase (Grades 7 to 9) Policy Document (Pretoria)

DOE (1997e) Discussion document: Curriculum 2005: Specific Outcomes, assessment criteria, range statements Grades 1 to 9 (Pretoria)

DOE (1997f) National Evaluation and Monitoring of the trial of Curriculum 2005 and OBE in Provincial Pilot Schools in South Africa (Pretoria)

DOE (1997g) Building a Brighter Future Curriculum 2005. Questions and Answers for Learners, Educators, Parents and Governing Bodies (Pretoria)

DOE (n.d.) Teacher´s Manual for Grade Seven (Pretoria)

DOE (1998a) Norms and Standards for Educators (Pretoria)

DOE (1998b) Assessment Policy in the General Education and Training Bands, Grades R to 9 and ABET (Pretoria).

DOE (1998c) Curriculum 2005. The Story of the Grade One Pilot Project. (CTP Book Printers).

DOE/CMC (1998d) Comprehensive strategy for curriculum change and transformation (draft, August)

DOE (1998e) Language-in-Education Implementation Plan (Pretoria)

DOE (1999a) Quality Assurance Audit Phase 2 vol. 1. (Pretoria)

DOE (1999b) ‘Call to Action! Mobilising Citizens to Build a South African Education and Training System for the Twenty First Century´ by Professor Kader Asmal, Minister of Education, 27 July.

DOE (2000a). Call for Comments on the Draft Statement on the National Curriculum for Grades 1-9. Government Gazette June 1997, No 18051.

DOE (2000b). National Education Policy Act No 18400.

DOE (2000c) Implementation Plan for Tirisano (Pretoria).

DOE (2000d) Corporate Plan: January 2000-December 2004 (Pretoria).

DOE (2000e) Procurement and Supply of LSM (Pretoria)

DOE (2000f) Values, Education and Democracy: Report of the Working Group on Values in Education (Pretoria)

DOE (2000f) James Report on Values in South African Education (Pretoria).

DOE (2000g) Expected Levels of Performance (Foundation Phase, Intermediate Phase and Senior Phase)

Department of Education, National Centre for Curriculum Research and Development (NCCRD)

L. Czerniewicz, S. Murray and M. Probyn (2000) ‘Learning Support Materials and Curriculum 2005´ (NCCRD)

District Development: What the Research Says (Part 1) (Draft research report presented at the District Conference held in Mpumulanga on 7-9 June 1999)

District Development: What the Research Says (Part 2) (Draft Research Report presented at the district conference held in Mpumulanga on 7-9 June 1999)

Education Districts Profile in the Northern Cape (Draft Report presented at the Provincial Conference on District Development, 5-7 September 1999)

Education Districts Profile in the Gauteng Province (Draft Report presented at the Provincial Conference on District Development)

Issues and Strategies to Improve Implementation of C2005 (Department of Education, Pretoria)

M. Kahn and J. Volmink (1999) ‘Review of Recent Trends on Teaching and Learning in Mathematics and Science Education with Implications for a South African Mathematics and Science Education Strategy within the Context of Lifelong Learning Development´.

L. Mphahlele (2000) ‘Synthesis of Documents´ (Presented to meeting of Review Committee, 24 March)

B. PAPERS AND REPORTS

K. Asmal (2000a) ‘Press announcement by the Minister of Education, Professor Kader Asmal, on the occasion of the appointment of the Review Team to study the national outcomes-based curriculum and progress with its implementation´ (8 February, Cape Town)

K. Asmal (2000b) ‘Address by Prof Kader Asmal, MP, Minister of Education´ (Soweto Education Summit, Soweto Education College, 20 February)

K. Asmal (2000c) ‘Speech by Prof Kader Asmal, Minister of Education to the Consulting Workshop on Religion in Education on Saturday 6 May 2000 at 08:30´ (Department of Education, Pretoria)

N. Bak (1999) (ed) ‘Making OBE Work?´ (Conference Proceedings of Conference held at Kromme Rhee Cape Administration Academy, 13, 14 & 15 December):

L. Chisholm, ‘International and Comparative Perspectives on OBE and Assessment´

N. Faasen, ‘How do we train Teachers in Implementing the Specific Outcomes?´

J. Gibbon, ‘Cooperative Learning and Continuous Assessment as Essential Elements in an OBE Approach´.

J. Jansen, ‘Lessons learned (and not learned) from the OBE Experience´

G. Keller, ‘OBE, A Success Story: The Sun Valley Primary School Model´

G. Kruss, ‘Researching Curriculum 2005 at School Level´

M. Gallie, ‘The Expected Role of Teachers as Curriculum Developers: A Mismatch between Curriculum 2005 Policy Formulation and Policy Implementation´.

L. Green, ‘Taking Teachers Seriously´.

M. Monteith and G. Weldon, ‘Attainable OBE for South Africa´.

W. Morrow, ‘Scriptures and Practices´.

S. Naicker, ‘Concept Document Outcomes Based Education´.

S. Naicker, ‘Preliminary Findings on the Implementation of OBE in Primary Schools in the Western Cape.´

B. O´Connell, ‘OBE: The Challenge for All South Africans´.

M. Ogunnyi, ‘Critical Issues on Continuous Assessment with respect to Curriculum 2005´

I. Rensburg, ‘The Political Imperatives of Transformation with regard to Curriculum´.

A. Schlebusch, ‘C2005: Out there in the Choppy Waters – Learning, Assessment, Attitude and Practice´

B. Schreuder (1999) ‘OBE/C2005: From Theory to Practice´

N. Taylor, ‘Operationalising Curriculum 2005.´

A.Schlebusch, J. Baxen, Wildschut and S. Naicker (1998) C2005 Piloting: The First Voyage: A WCED Study

P. Vinjevold ‘The Provision of Learning Support Materials in the Grade 7 Pilot Project: Some Observations´

Centre for Education Policy Development (CEPD) (2000) ‘The Implementation of C2005 at National and Provincial Levels: First Draft: A Component of Formative Evaluation and Monitoring of Curriculum 2005 Implementation in South Africa´ (Johannesburg)

Eastern Cape Education Department (1999) ‘Curriculum 2005: Grades 1 and 2: Interim Evaluation Report´

Free State Education Department (1999) ‘Report on Learning Support Materials: A Curriculum and Quality Perspective´.

Gauteng Education and Training Council (GETC) (1999) ‘Focus on Curriculum 2005: Phase One: Report on the Implementation and Development of Curriculum 2005 during 1998´ (3 February)

Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development (GICD) (1999) ‘Learning Support Materials: Policy Recommendations: Final Report of a Joint Project between the GDE and the GICD´

F. Goolam and L. Khumalo (1997) Perspectives on Outcomes-Based Education (OBE): Proceedings of a National Conference on Outcomes-Based Education held at the University of Durban-Westville, 20 March 1997 (Macro Education Policy Unit, University of Durban Westville)

U. Hoadley (1999) ‘An Analysis of Transmission in Four Grade 1 Classrooms´ (mimeo)

Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) (1999) Evaluation of Curriculum 2005 (Preliminary Report) (Pretoria)

Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) (2000) Nationwide Formative Evaluation and Monitoring of C2005 in SA: Preliminary Report submitted to the national Department of Education (HSRC, 20 January)

Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) (2000) Formative Evaluation and Monitoring of Curriculum 2005 Implementation in Gauteng. Preliminary Report submitted to Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development (GICD) (Pretoria, 15 May)

J.D. Jansen, T.Z. Maqutu, L.P. Khumalo, S.Z. Comney (1999) A Very Noisy OBE: A Report on the Implementation of OBE inside Grade 1 Classrooms (CEREP, UDW)

Khulisa Management Services with MBM Change Agents (1999) ‘Evaluation of Curriculum 2005 (C2005) and Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) in Gauteng Province´ (March)

Khulisa Management Services and MBM Change Agents (1999) ‘Evaluation of OBE/C2005 in Gauteng Province: Presentation of Final Results (March)

Khulisa Management Services with MBM Change Agents (2000) ‘Evaluation of C2005 in Gauteng Province´

Khulisa Management Services with MBM Change Agents (2000), ‘Evaluation of Training for C2005 in Gauteng Province´.

L.P. Khumalo, W.D. Papo, A.M. Mabitla and J.D. Jansen (1999) ‘A Baseline Survey of OBE in Grade 1 Classrooms in the Northern Province´ (CEREP, UDW)

C. Malcolm (2000) ‘ Implementation of Outcomes Based Approaches to Education in Australia and South Africa: A Comparative Study´ (CEPD, Johannesburg)

L. Marneweck and Carol Anne Spreen, ‘Dancing with the Monster: Mastering the Steps of OBE in the Northern Province´ (mimeo, 1999)

S. Naiker (1999) ‘Outcomes-based Education: Some Reflections on Training and the Way Ahead´ (A paper presented at the Language Teacher Training in the New Millenium Conference hosted by the South African College of Education).

North West Education Department (1999) ‘The Kgatelopele Initiative: An Initiative of the Department of Education of the North West Province, South Africa: An Evaluation Report´ (November)

A. Oberholzer (2000) ‘The National Qualifications Framework and Curriculum Development´.

W.D. Papo, G.B. Cele and S.Z. Comney (1999) Case Studies of Four Grade 1 Classrooms in the Northern Province (CEREP, UDW and UNICEF)

H. Perold (1997), ‘In-Service Teacher Development: Lessons from the Kgatelopele Initiative in the Northern Province (December)

President´s Education Initiative Research Reports (1999):

E.L.M. Bayona, N.B. Sadiki, ‘An Investigation into Appropriate Ways of Implementing Institutional Development (Whole School Development)´.

B. Bell, ‘Implementing Good Group Work in ESL Classrooms´.

D. Ewing and M. Setsubi, ‘Seeking Lessons for Teacher Professional Development´,

B.I. Maja, ‘The Enabling Conditions for Successful Learning Environments: A Quantitative/Qualitative Synthesis of Maths Teaching and Learning'

S. Makoni, ‘Investigation into Teaching Styles and Cognitive Processes in Language Learning´.

D. Mkhize, ‘Investigating the Role of Cooperative Group Work in Learner Achievement in Maths´.

C. Reeves and C. Long, ‘Report on an Investigation into Grade 4 Maths Teaching and Learning´.

S. Murray, ‘Seeking the Possible: An Evaluation of an Intervention which seeks to help teachers learn African languages using an approach which integrates language and culture´.

O.M. Onwu, ‘An Investigation of the Availability and Use of Learning Materials in Grade 12 Science Classes in Some Selected Schools in the Northern Province´.

C. Reeves and C Long, ‘Report on an Investigation into Language-Sensitive Activity-Based Methodology in Primary Science Teaching at Grade 7 Level´.

M. Setati, ‘Innovative Language Preferences in Multilingual Mathematics Classrooms´

E. Smith, R Koopman and B Kohler, ‘Teachers´ Knowledge of their Practices: The Impact of the Intervention and Support Programme´.

P. Webb, G. Bolt et al, ‘The Nature and Impact of Accredited In-Service Education on Underqualified Science and Maths Teachers: Which Factors Generate Best Practice in the Classroom?´

S. Wickham and R. Versfeld, ‘Investigating and Establishing Best Practices in the Teaching of English as a second Language in under-researched and multilingual Classrooms, Report 2´.

Proudfoot Consulting (1999) Interim Report on the Provision of Learner Support Materials: Business Reviews (prepared for the Department of Education)

A. Schlebusch and J. Baxen (1998) ‘The First Voyage: Western Cape Education Department Evaluation of C2005 Pilot Programme´

E. Schollar (2000) Final Report of the Evaluation of the INSET Compoenent of the Mpumulanga Primary School Improvement Project

R. Sieborger (1999a) ‘Issues of relevance and Quality in a Comparison of Three OBE National Curricula´(mimeo)

R. Sieborger (1999b) ‘Key Issues in In-Service Teacher Development for Curriculum 2005´(mimeo)

R. Sieborger (1999c) ‘An Introduction to Curriculum 2005´(mimeo)

R. Sieborger (1999d) ‘Distinguishing between the Rhetoric and the Reality: The Case of History in Curriculum 2005´ (Paper presented at national Subject Didactics/Learning Area Symposium, University of Stellenbosch, 14-17 September)

South African Democratic Teachers´ Union (2000) ‘Conceptualisation of the Curriculum Development Capacity Building´ (Johannesburg)

South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) (2000) ‘The NQF and Curriculum 2005 – A SAQA Position Paper´ (Pretoria)

South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) Report of the discussion meeting (GETC, FETC and compulsory credits) held at the SAQA Offices on 24 February 2000

P. Vinjevold and J. Roberts (1999) External Evaluation Report: Provision of Learning Materials Grade 7 Pilot Project

C. SELECTED BOOKS AND ARTICLES

S. Ball (1994) Education Reform: A Critical Poststructural Approach (London, Open University Press)

Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development (GICD) (1999) ‘Update on GICD Projects´, Education Practice, 2:43-44

L. Chisholm (1999) ‘International and Comparative Perspectives: Outcomes-Based Education and the Senior Certificate Examination´ (Working Paper No 18, Education Policy Unit, University of Natal, Durban)

N. Cloete, J. Muller, M.W. Makgoba and D. Ekong (eds) (1997) Knowledge, Identity and Curriculum Transformation in South Africa (Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman)

M. Cross, Z Mkwanazi-Twala and G Klein (eds) Dealing with Diversity in South African Education: A Debate on the Politics of a National Curriculum (Juta, 1998)

B. Fleisch (2000) ‘Improving Early Reading: Reflections on the Benoni/Brakpan district´s teacher development project´ (Education Practice Issue 4, Johannesburg)

J. Jansen (1997) ‘Why OBE Will Fail´ republished in J. Jansen and P. Christie (eds) Changing Curriculum: Studies on Outcomes Based Education in South Africa (Juta) as ‘Why Outcomes-Based Education will Fail: An Elaboration´

J. Jansen (1999a) ‘Curriculum Reform in South Africa: A Critical Analysis of Outcomes-Based Education´ Cambridge Journal of Education, 28, 3 (November)

J. Jansen (1999b) ‘Can Policy Learn? Reflections on Why OBE will Fail´ Southern African Review of Education, 3:5-10.

J. Jansen (1999c) ‘”A Very Noise OBE”: The Implementation of OBE in Grade 1 Classrooms´ in J. Jansen and P. Christie (eds) Changing the Curriculum: Studies on Outcomes-Based Education in South Africa (Cape Town, Juta)

J. Jansen and P. Christie (1999) Changing Curriculum: Studies on Outcomes-Based Education in South Africa (Juta)

P. Garson (1999) ‘Counting on Kader´ Siyaya (6): 13-17

D. Hindle (1996), ‘A Review of Curriculum Development Structures and Processes in South Africa, 1994-1995´ (EPU Working Paper No 6, Education Policy Unit, University of Natal, Durban).

D. Kramer (n.d.) O.B.E. Teaching Toolbox (Vivlia)

H. Mohamed (1998) ‘The Implementation of OBET in South Africa: Pathway to Success or Recipe for Failure´ Education Practice, 1: 3-16

J. Muller (1998) ‘The Well-tempered Learner: Self-regulation, Pedagogic Models and Teacher Education Policy´ Comparative Education, 34, 177-193.

J. Muller (1998) ‘NQF and Outcomes-Based Education: Pedagogic Models and Hard Choices´ in CEPD (eds) Reconstruction, Development and the National Qualifications Framework: Conference Proceedings (CEPD, Johannesburg)

J. Muller and N. Taylor (1995) ‘Schooling and Everyday Life: Knowledges Sacred and Profane´ Social Epistemology, 9, 257-275.

A. Odden (ed) (1991) Education Policy Implementation (SUNY, New York)

E. Potenza and M. Monyokolo (1999) ‘A Destination without a Map: Premature Implementation of Curriculum 2005´ In Jansen and Christie, Changing Curriculum.

C. Reeves (1999) ‘Are Teachers Likely to Achieve the Natural Science Outcomes for Curriculum 2005?´ Journal of Education, 24, 45-64.

Y. Seleti (1997) ‘From History and Human and Social Sciences: The New Curriculum Framework and the End of History for the General Education and Training Level´ (EPU Working Paper No 14, Education Policy Unit, University of Natal, Durban).

W. Spady (1994) Outcomes-Based Education: Critical Issues and Answers (Arlington Va: American Association of School Administrators)

W. Spady (1998) Paradigm Lost: Reclaiming America´s Educational Future (Arlington Va: American Association of School Administrators)

W. Spady and A. Schlebusch (1999) Curriculum 2005: A Guide for Parents (Renaissance, Tafelberg)

N. Taylor (1999) ‘Curriculum 2005: Finding a balance between School and Everyday Knowledges´ in N. Taylor and P. Vinjevold (eds) Getting Learning Right (Jet, Johannesburg)

N. Taylor and P. Vinjevold (1999) Getting Learning Right: Report of the President´s Education Initiative (Joint Education Trust, Johannesburg)

Wits EPU Quarterly Reviews of Education and Training 1994-2000 (Education Policy Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg)

D. THESES

S. Dadabhay (1998) ‘Outcomes-Based Education and Training in Adult Basic Education and Training´ (Rand Afrikaans University)

A. Hiralaal (2000), ‘The Attitudes of Grade 1 Teachers in Pietermaritzburg to the Training they have Received in OBE (MEd, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg)

L. Meyer (1998) ‘Strategies which demonstrate both critical and specific outcomes, as outlined in Curriculum 2005, using traditional literature – Romeo and Juliet´ (BA Hons, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg)

P. Moodley (2000) ‘The Implementation of Outcomes-Based Education: A Comparative Study in Selected School Climates´ (MEd, University of Durban-Westville)

M. Williams (1999) ‘Outcomes-Based Education: How Have Selected Teachers Responded to Curriculum 2005?´ (MEd, Wits)

E. WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS

Academy of Science of South Africa, Prof Wieland Gevers, President

Afrikaanse Hoerskool, Kroonstad

Adler, J, University of the Witwatersrand

Alexander, Dr Neville, University of Cape Town

Alberview Primary School

Alphabet for Africa, Foundation Phase Literacy Programme

Alston, Ken, East London

APEK Geography Association

Arcadia School, Pretoria, Mrs Viljoen

Banda, P, Kabokweni

Barnard, Dr Y

Berriman, L, Isando

Balfour Primary School, Mr OP Bodibe

Botha, Lorraine, F

Brakvlei Farm School, EG Lenong

Brink, Mev. C, Table View

Bondolo, VV, Queenstown

Bronkhortspruit Primary School

Broliard, A, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Brown, Mrs, Bedfordview

Brownlee Pre-School

Bryndale Primary School, PO Box 69597, Bryanston

Bryanston Primary School

Buthelezi, S, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Cape Technikon, Cape Town, Ms Mel Hagen

Catholic Institute of Education, Kokstad, Nathan Johnstone, Director

Cedar College of Education

Centre for Education Policy Development, Evaluation and Monitoring (CEPD) with Wits EPU and SAHRC

Centre for Education Policy Development, Evaluation and Monitoring, John Pampallis, Director

Centre for Educational Research, Evaluation and Policy, University of Durban-Westville

Chidester, David, Ministerial Committee on Religious Education, University of Cape Town

Cliffdale Primary School, Hammarsdale, Dr RS Budhal

Coates, John

Coetzee, Carol PO Box 4174, Edenvale

Coetzee, L.

Cohen, Sue and Monyokolo, Mareka, Deputy Directors of the Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development

Collegiate High School for Girls, Port Elizabeth

Cooks, Mrs R, Knysna

Constantia Primary School, Cape Town

COUNT Teacher Trainers: Lawrence, M, Hansen, P and Katz, J

Curriculum Development Project for Arts and Culture, Education and Training, Charlotte Schaer, CDP Trust Director

Delta Foundation

Department of Education, Free State

Department of Education, Pretoria

Department of Education, Northern Province

Department of Education, North West Province, Curriculum Development and Examinations

Department of Education, Sports and Culture, Kokstad, S T Spencer

Department of Health, Eastern Cape, Mrs GV Mtimkulu

De Lange, DP, Durbanville

Des Collier Consulting in Association with Dr William G Spady for the Delta Foundation

District Training Team, Gauteng

Dixon, K, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Dube, R, The Right to Hope Trust

Durban College of Education

Edgewood College of Education

Education Policy Unit, Natal, Jenni Karlsson, Executive Director

Education Policy Unit (Wits) with SAHRC and CEPD

Ekangala School Governing Bodies Association, MM Mohlamonyane

Epworth Primary School, John Mathfield, Principal

Environmental Education Association for Southern Africa, R Wagiet and L Masuku

ESST, Cape Town, Dr Abel

Evans, MC, Honeydew

Fabre, L. Australia

Free State Provincial Government, Education Department

Gauteng Department of Education, Examinations and Assessment

Gauteng Department of Education, District Central 1

Gauteng Education and Training Council

Gavin, M, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Geyser, Prof Hester, Centre for Higher Education Studies, Rand Afrikaans University

Giyani College of Education

Giyani Science Centre

Glenstantia Primary School

Govender, K, Falcon Park Primary School, Chatsworth

Granville, S, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Graven, MH, RADMASTE Centre, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Green, Lena, University of Cape Town

Grimliech, David, Retired Headmaster, Futura School

Grove Primary School, Cape Town

Gwayi, AZ

Hamilton Primary School, Cape Town, E Mybrugh

Heine, Roselle

Henning, Mark, Independent Schools Association

Hurlyvale Primary School, Mr G Ward

Independent Examinations Board (IEB)

Inter-departmental Task Team on Human Movement and School Sport

Irene Primary School

ISASA, Houghton, Suzanne Rees

Jeppe High School for Boys, Kensington, Mr KJ Tait

Johannesburg College of Education, Prof David Freer

Johannesburg College of Education, History Department

John, Paul, Bloemfontein

Jordaan, Mariette, Kimberley

Julyan, Edgar, Johannesburg Technical College

Kahn, Michael, Scarborough, Western Cape

Kahn, Michael, Prof, Ministerial Adviser

Kahn, Z

Karaolis, Jo, St Catherine´s School

Katenje, N, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Kenyon, A and Kenyon, V, Fort Hare Distance Education Project

Kleinste Primere Skool, Rosendal, Vrystaat, Mev Ria Lerm, Prinsipaal

Kohanovitz, IB, Harlequin Tutorial College

Kramer, David, Vivlia Publishers and Booksellers

KwaZulu Natal Department of Education and Culture, Dr LT Mbatha

Laddsworth Primary School

Laerskool Gustav Preller

Laerskool Helderkruin, Music Teachers

Laerskool Kenmare

Laerskool Randhart

Laerskool Rapportryer, Randgate

Lamlile Primary School, Bethal, JN Vilakazi

Learning for Sustainability Programme

Levy, Sharon, The Teacher Trust

Link Community Development

Living Waters Private School, Groblersdal, Dr I Venter

Lopez, Margarida, Auckland Park

Mahlomaholo, Sechaba, Vista, Bloemfontein

Mahomed, Nisaar and Kraak, Andre, Human Sciences Research Council

Marekolodi Primary School

Mashemong Primary School

MASTEC (Mathematics, Science and Technology Education College, Diane Grayson, Academic Vice-Rector

Matobako, Thabang, University of the North

Mbatha, ZC, Pietermaritzburg

Mbhele, MC, Harrismith

McDonald, Carol

Mendelowitz, B, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Metcalfe, AR, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Meyer, Lyn

Mills, Bev

Mkhabela, TW, University of the Witwatersrand, johannesburg

Mnisi, E, Tembisa

Mokgoko, Martha, The Teacher Trust

Meyer, Susan, Johannesburg

Mokoena, S, Mafatsana

Moletsane, L, University of Natal, Durban

Molteno Project

Mosidi Solly, Department of Environmental Affairs

Motala, S, Education Policy Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Motloung, RM, Deneysville

Mouton, J (PCA), Tapp, J (Western Cape), Luthuli, D (KZN), Rogan, J (Gauteng)

Mthembu, MG, Standerton

Mtimkulu, Mrs

Nair, M

N5 District, ‘Some Farm School Teachers´

National Professional Teachers Organisation of South Africa (NAPTOSA)

National Environmental Education Programme of the Department of Education and the Environmental Education Association of South Africa

National Union of Educators

Newfield, Denise, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Northdale Primary School

North West Province, Directorate: Professional Development and Subject Advisory Services

Northern Cape Education Development Trust

Northern Province Department of Education

National Union of Educators

Northdale Primary School, PV Moodley

Ntataise Trust, Viljoenskroon, Jane Evans, Director

Odendaalsrus Education District Office, JM Mehlo

Olivier, Cas, North West Province

Omar, Nazeema, Cape Town

Oosthuizen, D,Durban

Orsmond, C, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

ORT-STEP Institute, Wendywood, AFG Cotton, CEO

Outeniqua Primary School, George, Mev R van Zyl

Pahad, M, IEB

Patience, Zynde, SAILI (NGO), Mowbray

Pestalozzi Trust, Queenswood

Phiri, E, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Pienaar, A

Pinehurst Primary School, AR Tuner

Place, Jean, Johannesburg College of Education

Project for Research into Alternative Education in South Africa (PRAESA)

Prospectus Novus Skool, Wonderboompoort

PROTEC (Programme for Technological Careers)

Publishers´ Association of South Africa (PASA)

Quail, David, Gauteng Legislature

RADMASTE Centre, Wits University, Colleen Smith

Rand Afrikaans University, E Visser

Rand Afrikaans University, History Department

Rand Afrikaans University, Department of Geology, B Cairncross

Rathloa, MZ, Thlabane

Reichel, DR FRM, Lichtenburg

Rhode, JJ Primary School

Rhodes University, Department of Geography, RC Fox, Associate Professor and HOD

Rhodes University, MED English Second Language Class

Rhodes University Language and Education Research Group and Institute for the Study of English in Africa

Rondebosch Boys´ High School, M Barker, Headmaster

Russell, Dorothea, Cape Town

SANTS, Menlo Park, Pretoria, Mr Bester

Schools Development Unit, University of Cape Town

Science Curriculum Trust, Wits

Scientific and Industrial Leadership Initiative

Sentrale Volkskool, HAS de Jager

Setanyetso, CD

Setlhare Science Curriculum Trust, Wits University, Peter Moodie

Sieborger, Rob, School of Education, University of Cape Town

Shau, BG, Nagina, KwaZulu-Natal

Smit, Merle, Vanderbijlpark

Sokotu, W, Department of Culture, Bisho

Sol Plaatje Primary School, Mmabatho, North West

South African College of Teacher Education (SACTE), Gezina, AJ Venter

South African College of Teacher Education (SACTE), Prof Wallace

South African Democratic Teachers´ Union

South African Historical Society

South African Human Rights Commission with Wits EPU and CEPD

South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE), Jenni Glennie, Director

South African National Council for the Blind, William Rowland, National Council for the Blind

South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA), Sam Isaacs, Director

Spady, William, USA

Springvale Primary School

St Andrew´s Language Project

Stakeholders´ Workshop Project, Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development

Stirling High School Governing Body, J De Bax, (Chairman)

Suid Afrikaanse Onderwys Unie

SWEP Project, Doornfontein, Vera Henstock

Taylor Nick, Joint Education Trust, Johannesburg

Technology Association, Western Province Prep School

The Teacher Trust

Thwala, Richard, Crystal Park

Toyota Teach Primary School Project

Toyota Teach, Derek Pienaar

Truida Kestel Primary School, Bethlehem, H du Preez

Tshale, TG

Tshabalala, M, Stilfontein

UBU College, Witbank, M Retief

University of Cape Town

University of Cape Town, History Department, Christopher Saunders

University of the Free State, Faculty of Humanities

University of Natal, Durban, School of Education

University of Pretoria, Department of Music, South African Critical Friends

University of Pretoria, Faculty of Education

University of Pretoria, Faculty of Science

University of Pretoria, Vic Webb

University of Stellenbosch, June Bam

University of Stellenbosch, Education Faculty

University of the Western Cape, Prof N Bak

University of the Western Cape, M Robinson

University of the Western Cape, Professor Peter Kallaway

University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Applied English Studies (Hilary Janks, Yvonne Reed, Pippa Stein, Stella Granville, Chris Orsmond, Belinda Mendelowitz, Pinky Mahoe)

University of the Witwatersrand, School of Education

University of the Witwatersrand, History Department

University of South Africa (UNISA), Faculty of Education, Prof M MacDonald

Van den Berg, Dr Francois, Randfontein

Van Graan, A, Kroonstad

Van Loggerenberg, Ms A, University of Pretoria

Von Papendorp, Jennifer, Camps Bay

Van Wyk, JH, Mev, Secunda

Venter, Mrs AJ, Gezina

Victoria West High School

Vista University, Bloemfontein Campus, DR AC Wilkinson, Department of Postgraduate Education

Vista University, Bloemfontein, Dr SP van Tonder

Waghmarae, Hemant, Joint Education Trust

Waja, J, Johannesburg

Westerford High School, Jean Bottard, Deputy Principal

Western Cape Education Department

Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP)

Westfields Primary School, Carletonville

Williamson, NO, Learning Outcomes Facilitator, Lyndrust

Wilkinson, Linda, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Wills, Ivan, Cape Town

Wright, L, Rhodes University

F. INTERVIEWS

These interviews were not transcribed, and individuals were interviewed either in focus groups or individually.

E. Botha, Former member of DOE curriculum structures, 22/3/2000

A.M. Buys, Chief Education Specialist, Quality Assurance, 14/3/2000

P. Dikgomo, Teacher Development Directorate, DOE, 31/3/2000.

S. Hendricks, Director, DOE, 22/3/2000, 23/3/2000, 4/4/2000

M. Kibi, Former Head Learning Area Committee, MMLMS, 13/4/2000

P. Glover, Former Head Learning Area Committee, Natural Science, 12/4/2000

S. Isaacs, Executive Director, South African Qualifications Authority, 16/3/2000

K. Lehoko, Chief Director, DOE, Further Education and Training, 16/3/2000

C. Madiba, Chief Director, National and Provincial Cooperative Governance

M. Matlala, Teacher Development Directorate, DOE, 31/3/2000

S. Mpolweni, Director Teacher Development, DOE, 3/4/2000

G. Niebuhr, Former member of DOE curriculum structures, 22/3/2000

S. Nkosi, Seconded from SADTU to the DOE, 4/4/2000

A. Oberholzer, Director Strategic Support, SAQA, 16/3/2000

S. Papendorf, Seconded from NAPTOSA to the DOE, 4/4/2000

B. Parker, Director Teacher Education, DOE, 15/3/2000, 29/3/2000

I. Rensburg, Deputy D-G DOE General & Further Education and Training, 16/3/2000

R. Sieborger, Former Head Learning Area Committee, HSS, 22/3/2000

L. Tshwete, Director Quality Assurance, DOE, 15/3/2000

I. Widdop, Director of Operations, Proudfoot Consultancy, 20/4/2000

P.Hamukoma, Director of Business Development, Proudfoot Consultancy, 21/4/2000

Teacher Development Sub-committee of HEDCOM

M. Jarvis, Superintendent-General, KZN DEC

T. Mbatha, Director Education Programmes and Curriculum Development, KwaZulu Natal, 28/3/2000

S.N.P. Sishi, Durban South Region, DCES, KZN

S.P. Govender, North Durban Region, DCES, KZN

H. Wilson, DCES, KZN

A. Meyers, CMC, Gauteng, 13/4/2000

B. O´Connell, Suuperintendent-General, Western Cape Education Department, 23/3/2000

A. Schlebusch, CMC, Western Cape, 7/4/2000

B. Schreuder, CMC, Western Cape, 7/4/2000

R. Tywakadi, Director: Curriculum Development, Eastern Cape, 4/4/2000

N. Skenjana, Deputy Permanent Secretary: Education Management and Development Services, Eastern Cape, 4/4/2000

Eastern Cape Provincial Curriculum Directorate (S. Qobo, N. Tyani, J. van der Walt), 4/4/2000

Eastern Cape Regional Coordinators, 4/4/2000

M. Rakometsi, Director: Education Institute, Free State, 5/4/2000

G.N. de Villiers, CES: Curriculum Development, Free State, 5/4/2000

Curriculum , Provisioning and Finance Directorates, Free State, 18/4/2000

M. Jacobs, CES: Learning Facilitation and Subject Advisory Services, Orange Free State, 5/4/2000

Mr Maponyane, Curriculum Development Directorate, Northern Province

Mrs Ramaphala, Polokwane District, ECD, Northern Province

Mrs Rakgatla, ECD Phase Section, Northern Province

Mr Mailula, Curriculum Support Directorate, Northern Province

Mr Setati, Senior Phase, Northern Province

M. Mhlongo, Acting Director of Teacher Development Directorate)

Mr Motara, Trainer and Head of Teacher Development Unit, Potchefstroom, North West Province

Director of Teacher Development/Professional Support Services, Mafikeng, North West Province

Director of Curriculum and ten members of staff, North West Province

Shoma Training Centre, Mafikeng North West Province

A Meyers, T. Nkotoe and E Pedro, Gauteng Department of Education, Curriculum and Teacher Development Directorate (CTDU), 13/4/2000

M Kibi, Director, Provisioning Unit, Gauteng Department of Education, 14/4/2000

J. Mkhwanazi, Acting CES, Curriculum, Mpumulanga Department of Education, 12/5/2000

L. Sithole, Financial Management Services, Mpumulanga Department of Education, 12/5/2000

S. du Preez, Senior Provisioning Administrative Officer, Logistics, Mpumulanga Department of Education, 12/5/2000

J. Reneke, Deputy Director, Logistics, Mpumulanga Department of Education, 12/5/2000

C. Nkuna, Technology Coordinator, Mpumulanga Department of Education, 12/5/2000

Delta Foundation Group Interview with Curriculum Coordinator and 8 subject advisers (Port Elizabeth)

N. Clark, FET Committee, Maskew Millar Longmann, 11/5/2000

N. Fassen, Tafelberg, 11/5/2000

J. Ingles, Shuter & Shooter, 11/5/2000

L. Mabandla, Chair of Education Interest Group, Publishers Association of South Africa (PASA)

K. McCallum, Oxford University Press, CEO, 17/4/2000

S. Zuma, FET Interest Group, Juta

M. Monteith, education consultant

H. de Kok, HSRC, 23/3/2000

M. Magamate, HSRC, 23/3/2000

E. Nel, IEB, 15/3/2000

M. Pahad, IEB, 17/4/2000

S. Reinecke, HSRC, 23/3/2000

R. Scheepers, HSRC, 23/3/2000

G. SCHOOLS VISITED

KwaZulu-Natal

Berea West Junior Primary

Berea West Senior Primary

Nxumalo Primary School

Ulundi Primary School

Yiboni Primary School

Western Cape

Masivuke Primary School

Sid Rule Primary School

Eastern Cape

Siyaphambile School (G5 – G8)

Lonwabo Primary School (ELSEN)

Cape Recife School (ELSEN)

Triomf Primary

Northern Province

Huelereng Primary

Makgoathare Primary

Makgoathane Primary School

Masivuke Primary School

NorthWest Province

Lesego Primary School

Mafikeng Primary School

Montshioa Memorial Middle School

Montshwa Memorial School

Potchefstroom Central Primary School

Free State

Heide Primary School, Heidedal

Monamodi Primary School, Brandfort

St Andrews School, Bloemfontein

Northern Cape

Beaconsfield Primary School

Mpumulanga

Eastdene Combined School

Middelburg Combined School

Vuma Combined School

H. NEWSPAPERS

Beeld: 10/2/2000

Business Day: 9/2/2000; 22/2/2000

Citizen: 9/2/2000; 22/2/2000

City Press: 13/2/2000; 27/2/2000

Current Affairs: 10/3/2000

Despatch: 11/2/2000

Educator´s Voice

Financial Mail: 28/1/2000

Info@woza.co.za: 8/2/2000

Leadership: 10/2/2000

Mail and Guardian: 3-8/4/1998; 4-10/6/1999; 14/1/2000; 10/2/2000,

News24.co.za: 9/2/2000; 21/2/2000; 22/2/2000

Pretoria News: 9/2/2000; 23/2/2000

The Star: 9/2/2000; 14/2/2000; 23/2/2000

Sowetan: 11/2/2000; 13/3/2000; 14/3/2000; 15/3/2000

Sunday Times: 13/2/2000; 20/2/2000

Sunday World: 20/2/2000

The Teacher: March 2000

I. TEXTBOOKS

Grade 7 Human and Social Sciences Textbooks

Ace – Human and Social Sciences

Gariep – My New World

Heinemann – Social Science

Juta – Investigating Society and Environment

Kagiso – Human and Social Sciences

Macmillan – People in Time and Place

Maskew Miller Longman – On Track with Human and Social Sciences

Maskew Miller Longman – Understanding Human and Social Sciences

Nasou – Human and Social Sciences

Oxford University Press – Successful Human and Social Sciences


Contents   |   Chapter 1    |   Chapter 2   |   Chapter 3   |    Chapter 4   |   Chapter 5  

Chapter 6   |   Chapter 7    |   Chapter 8   |   Chapter 9   |    Appendicies