1. Introduction to the Reconstruction and Development Programme

1.1 WHAT IS THE RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (RDP)?

1.1.1
The RDP is an integrated, coherent socio-economic policy framework. It seeks to mobilise all our people and our country's resources toward the final eradication of apartheid and the building of a democratic, non-racial and non-sexist future.

1.1.2
Within the framework for policy represented by the RDP, the ANC will develop detailed positions and a legislative programme of government.

1.1.3
The RDP has been drawn up by the ANC-led alliance in consultation with other key mass organisations. A wide range of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and research organisations assisted in the process.

1.1.4
This process of consultation and joint policy formulation must continue as the RDP is developed into an effective programme of government. Other key sectors of our society such as the business community must be consulted and encouraged to participate as fully as they may choose.

1.1.5
Those organisations within civil society that participated in the development of the RDP will be encouraged by an ANC government to be active in and responsible for the effective implementation of the RDP.

1.1.6
This inclusive approach to developing and implementing policy is unique in South Africa's political history. The special nature of the ANC as a liberation movement and the traditions of the Freedom Charter make it the only political organisation capable of unifying a wide range of social movements, community-based organisations and numerous other sectors and formations. Widespread and broad-based extra-parliamentary support will allow the ANC within a Government of National Unity to implement the programme.

1.2 WHY DO WE NEED AN RDP?

1.2.1
Our history has been a bitter one dominated by colonialism, racism, apartheid, sexism and repressive labour policies. The result is that poverty and degradation exist side by side with modern cities and a developed mining, industrial and commercial infrastructure. Our income distribution is racially distorted and ranks as one of the most unequal in the world - lavish wealth and abject poverty characterise our society.

1.2.2
The economy was built on systematically enforced racial division in every sphere of our society. Rural areas have been divided into underdeveloped bantustans and well-developed, white-owned commercial farming areas. Towns and cities have been divided into townships without basic infrastructure for blacks and well-resourced suburbs for whites.

1.2.3
Segregation in education, health, welfare, transport and employment left deep scars of inequality and economic inefficiency. In commerce and industry, very large conglomerates dominated by whites control large parts of the economy. Cheap labour policies and employment segregation concentrated skills in white hands. Our workers are poorly equipped for the rapid changes taking place in the world economy. Small and medium-sized enterprises are underdeveloped, while highly protected industries underinvested in research, development and training.

1.2.4
The result is that in every sphere of our society - economic, social, political, moral, cultural, environmental - South Africans are confronted by serious problems. There is not a single sector of South African society, nor a person living in South Africa, untouched by the ravages of apartheid. Whole regions of our country are now suffering as a direct result of the apartheid policies and their collapse.

1.2.5
In its dying years, apartheid unleashed a vicious wave of violence. Thousands and thousands of people have been brutally killed, maimed, and forced from their homes. Security forces have all too often failed to act to protect people, and have frequently been accused of being implicated in, and even fomenting, this violence. We are close to creating a culture of violence in which no person can feel any sense of security in their person and property. The spectre of poverty and/or violence haunts millions of our people.

1.2.6
Millions of ordinary South Africans struggled against this system over decades, to improve their lives, to restore peace, and to bring about a more just society. In their homes, in their places of work, in townships, in classrooms, in clinics and hospitals, on the land, in cultural expression, the people of our country, black, white, women, men, old and young devoted their lives to the cause of a more humane South Africa. This struggle against apartheid was fought by individuals, by political organisations and by a mass democratic movement.

1.2.7
It is this collective heritage of struggle, these common yearnings, which are our greatest strength, and the RDP builds on it. At the same time the challenges facing South Africa are enormous. Only a comprehensive approach to harnessing the resources of our country can reverse the crisis created by apartheid. Only an all-round effort to harness the life experience, skills, energies and aspirations of the people can lay the basis for a new South Africa.

1.2.8
The first decisive step in this direction will be the forthcoming one-person, one-vote elections. A victory for democratic forces in these elections will lay the basis for effective reconstruction and development, and the restoration of peace.

1.2.9
But an election victory is only a first step. No political democracy can survive and flourish if the mass of our people remain in poverty, without land, without tangible prospects for a better life. Attacking poverty and deprivation must therefore be the first priority of a democratic government.

1.2.10
How can we do this successfully? It is no use merely making a long list of promises that pretend to answer every need expressed. Making promises is easy - especially during election campaigns - but carrying them out as a government is very much more difficult. A programme is required that is achievable, sustainable, and meets the objectives of freedom and an improved standard of living and quality of life for all South Africans within a peaceful and stable society.

1.2.11
The RDP is designed to be such a programme. To reach the RDP's objectives we face many obstacles and we are setting ourselves a great challenge. Each and every expectation will not be realised and each and every need will not be met immediately. Hard choices will have to be made. The RDP provides the framework within which those choices can be made. Even more importantly, it will involve both government and the people in further identifying needs and the obstacles to satisfying those needs, and will involve both in jointly implementing realistic strategies to overcome these obstacles. The RDP is an expression of confidence in the wisdom, organisational abilities and determination of our people.

1.3 THE SIX BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE RDP

1.3.1
Six basic principles, linked together, make up the political and economic philosophy that underlies the whole RDP. This is an innovative and bold philosophy based on a few simple but powerful ideas. They are:

1.3.2
An integrated and sustainable programme. The legacy of apartheid cannot be overcome with piecemeal and uncoordinated policies. The RDP brings together strategies to harness all our resources in a coherent and purposeful effort that can be sustained into the future. These strategies will be implemented at national, provincial and local levels by government, parastatals and organisations within civil society working within the framework of the RDP.

This programme is essentially centred on:

1.3.3
A people-driven process. Our people, with their aspirations and collective determination, are our most important resource. The RDP is focused on our people's most immediate needs, and it relies, in turn, on their energies to drive the process of meeting these needs. Regardless of race or sex, or whether they are rural or urban, rich or poor, the people of South Africa must together shape their own future. Development is not about the delivery of goods to a passive citizenry. It is about active involvement and growing empowerment. In taking this approach we are building on the many forums, peace structures and negotiations that our people are involved in throughout the land.

This programme and this people-driven process are closely bound up with:

1.3.4
Peace and security for all. Promoting peace and security must involve all people and must build on and expand the National Peace Initiative. Apartheid placed the security forces, police and judicial system at the service of its racist ideology. The security forces have been unable to stem the tide of violence that has engulfed our people. To begin the process of reconstruction and development we must now establish security forces that reflect the national and gender character of our country. Such forces must be non-partisan, professional, and uphold the Constitution and respect human rights. The judicial system must reflect society's racial and gender composition, and provide fairness and equality for all before the law.

As peace and security are established, we will be able to embark upon:

1.3.5
Nation-building. Central to the crisis in our country are the massive divisions and inequalities left behind by apartheid. We must not perpetuate the separation of our society into a 'first world' and a 'third world' - another disguised way of preserving apartheid. We must not confine growth strategies to the former, while doing patchwork and piecemeal development in the latter, waiting for trickle-down development. Nation-building is the basis on which to build a South Africa that can support the development of our Southern African region. Nation-building is also the basis on which to ensure that our country takes up an effective role within the world community. Only a programme that develops economic, political and social viability can ensure our national sovereignty.

Nation-building requires us to:

1.3.6
Link reconstruction and development.The RDP is based on reconstruction and development being parts of an integrated process. This is in contrast to a commonly held view that growth and development, or growth and redistribution are processes that contradict each other. Growth - the measurable increase in the output of the modern industrial economy - is commonly seen as the priority that must precede development. Development is portrayed as a marginal effort of redistribution to areas of urban and rural poverty. In this view, development is a deduction from growth. The RDP breaks decisively with this approach. If growth is defined as an increase in output, then it is of course a basic goal. However, where that growth occurs, how sustainable it is, how it is distributed, the degree to which it contributes to building long-term productive capacity and human resource development, and what impact it has on the environment, are the crucial questions when considering reconstruction and development. The RDP integrates growth, development, reconstruction and redistribution into a unified programme. The key to this link is an infrastructural programme that will provide access to modern and effective services like electricity, water, telecommunications, transport, health, education and training for all our people. This programme will both meet basic needs and open up previously suppressed economic and human potential in urban and rural areas. In turn this will lead to an increased output in all sectors of the economy, and by modernising our infrastructure and human resource development, we will also enhance export capacity. Success in linking reconstruction and development is essential if we are to achieve peace and security for all.

Finally, these first five principles all depend on a thoroughgoing

1.3.7
Democratisation of South Africa. Minority control and privilege in every aspect of our society are the main obstruction to developing an integrated programme that unleashes all the resources of our country. Thoroughgoing democratisation of our society is, in other words, absolutely integral to the whole RDP. The RDP requires fundamental changes in the way that policy is made and programmes are implemented. Above all, the people affected must participate in decision-making. Democratisation must begin to transform both the state and civil society. Democracy is not confined to periodic elections. It is, rather, an active process enabling everyone to contribute to reconstruction and development.

1.3.8
An integrated programme, based on the people, that provides peace and security for all and builds the nation, links reconstruction and development and deepens democracy - these are the six basic principles of the RDP.

1.4 THE KEY PROGRAMMES OF THE RDP

1.4.1
There are many proposals, strategies and policy programmes contained in the RDP. These can be grouped into five major policy programmes that are linked one to the other. The five key programmes are:

1.4.2
Meeting Basic Needs. The first priority is to begin to meet the basic needs of people - jobs, land, housing, water, electricity, telecommunications, transport, a clean and healthy environment, nutrition, health care and social welfare. In this way we can begin to reconstruct family and community life in our society. In this chapter, achievable programmes are set out for the next five years. These include programmes to redistribute a substantial amount of land to landless people, build over one million houses, provide clean water and sanitation to all, electrify 2,5 million new homes and provide access for all to affordable health care and telecommunications. The success of these programmes is essential if we are to achieve peace and security for all.

1.4.3
Our people should be involved in these programmes by being made part of the decision-making on where infrastructure is located, by being employed in its construction and by being empowered to manage and administer these large-scale programmes. These major infrastructural programmes should stimulate the economy through increased demand for materials such as bricks and steel, appliances such as television sets and washing machines, and many other products. In addition, the industrial sector must develop new, more efficient and cheaper products to meet our basic infrastructural needs.

1.4.4
Developing Our Human Resources. The RDP is a people-centred programme - our people must be involved in the decision-making process, in implementation, in new job opportunities requiring new skills, and in managing and governing our society. This will empower our people but an education and training programme is crucial. This chapter of the RDP deals with education from primary to tertiary level, from child care to advanced scientific and technological training. It focuses on young children, students and adults. It deals with training in formal institutions and at the workplace.

1.4.5
The underlying approach of these programmes is that education and training should be available to all from cradle to grave. The RDP takes a broad view of education and training, seeing it not only as something that happens in schools or colleges, but in all areas of our society - homes, workplaces, public works programmes, youth programmes and in rural areas.

1.4.6
A key focus throughout the RDP is on ensuring a full and equal role for women in every aspect of our economy and society. With this emphasis and with the emphasis on affirmative action throughout the RDP, we must unlock boundless energies and creativity suppressed by racism and discrimination.

1.4.7
In training, particular attention is paid to the challenges posed by the restructuring of our industries as we fully re-enter the world economy. These challenges can only be met through the extensive development of our human resources.

1.4.8
An arts and culture programme is set out as a crucial component of developing our human resources. This will assist us in unlocking the creativity of our people, allowing for cultural diversity within the project of developing a unifying national culture, rediscovering our historical heritage and assuring that adequate resources are allocated.

1.4.9
Because of apartheid, sport and recreation have been denied to the majority of our people. Yet there can be no real socio-economic development without there being adequate facilities for sport and recreation in all communities. The RDP wants to ensure that all people have access to such facilities. Only in this way can all our peoples have a chance to represent their villages, towns, cities, provinces or country in the arena of sport and to enjoy a rich diversity of recreational activities.

1.4.10
The problems facing the youth are well known. If we are to develop our human resource potential, then special attention must be paid to the youth. Our human resource policy should be aimed at reversing youth marginalisation, empowering youth, and allowing them to reach their full potential. Programmes for training, education and job creation will enable our youth to play a full role in the reconstruction and development of our society.

1.4.11
This programme for the development of our human resources underpins the capacity to democratise our society, thus allowing people to participate on the basis of knowledge, skill and creativity.

1.4.12
Building the Economy. The economy has strengths and weaknesses. Mining, manufacturing, agriculture, commerce, financial services and infrastructure are well developed. At present we have a large surplus of electricity. These are strengths we can build on. But so far they have not benefitted all our people. A process of reconstruction is proposed to ensure that these strengths now benefit all our people.

1.4.13
But we must also address serious weaknesses in our economy. There are still very clear racial and gender inequalities in ownership, employment and skills. Past industrial policies assisted in creating employment and were an important factor in developing industry but they were also accompanied by repressive labour practices, neglect of training, isolation from the world economy and excessive concentration of economic power. The result is a low level of investment in research and development, low and inappropriate skill levels, high costs, low productivity and declining employment.

1.4.14
Central to building the economy is the question of worker rights. Past policies of labour exploitation and repression must be redressed and the imbalances of power between employers and workers corrected. The basic rights to organise and to strike must be entrenched. And negotiations and participative structures at national, industry and workplace level must be created to ensure that labour plays an effective role in the reconstruction and development of our country.

1.4.15
In the world economy, the demand for raw materials including minerals has not grown rapidly and there is intense competition in the production of manufactured goods. The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) was recently updated to achieve substantial reductions in tariff levels. Our economy must adjust to these pressures if we are to sustain economic growth and continue to develop a large domestic manufacturing sector that makes greater use of our own raw materials and minerals.

1.4.16
A central proposal in this chapter is that we cannot build the South African economy in isolation from its Southern African neighbours. Such a path would benefit nobody in the long run. If South Africa attempts to dominate its neighbours it will restrict their growth, reducing their potential as markets, worsening their unemployment, and causing increased migration to South Africa. If we seek mutual cooperation, we can develop a large stable market offering stable employment and common labour standards in all areas.

1.4.17
The pressures of the world economy and the operations of international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and GATT, affect our neighbours and South Africa in different ways. In the case of our neighbours, they were pressured into implementing programmes with adverse effects on employment and standards of living. It is essential that we combine to develop effective strategies for all Southern African countries.

1.4.18
In building the economy, programmes dealing with the following areas are dealt with: linking reconstruction and development; industry, trade and commerce; resource-based industries; upgrading infrastructure; labour and worker rights, and Southern Africa.

1.4.19
Democratising the State and Society. Democratisation is integral to the RDP. Without thoroughgoing democratisation the resources and potential of our country and people will not be available for a coherent programme of reconstruction and development.

1.4.20
In linking democracy, development and a people-centred approach, we are paving the way for a new democratic order. This chapter sets out the role of the Constitution and Bill of Rights, of national, provincial and local government, the administration of justice, the public sector, parastatals, the police and security forces, social movements and NGOs, and a democratic information system in facilitating socio-economic development.

1.4.21
Implementing the RDP. The RDP raises many challenges in its implementation because it involves processes and forms of participation by organisations outside government that are very different to the old apartheid order. To implement and coordinate the RDP will require the establishment of effective RDP structures in government at a national, provincial and local level.

1.4.22
This chapter deals with the proposals for coordinating and planning the implementation of the RDP. This requires substantial restructuring of present planning processes and a rationalisation of the complex, racist and fragmented structures that exist. The RDP can only be people-centred if the planning and coordinating processes allow the active involvement of democratic structures.

1.4.23
Understandably, the first questions asked are: What will the RDP cost? Who will pay for it? These are important questions and in developing a programme to finance the RDP, certain key points are taken into account:

1.4.23.1
most of the expenditure on the RDP is not in fact new - rather it is the better organisation and rationalisation of existing systems that will unlock resources;

1.4.23.2
we must improve the capacity of the financial sector to mobilise more resources and to direct these to activities set out in the RDP, from housing to small and medium-sized enterprises;

1.4.23.3
we must ensure that electrification and telecommunications will be self-financing;

1.4.23.4
existing funds must be reallocated and rationalisation must be effected in many areas;

1.4.23.5
improved and reformed tax systems will collect more tax without having to raise tax levels (as the RDP succeeds, more taxpayers will be able to pay and revenue will rise), and

1.4.23.6
new funds will be raised in a number of areas.

1.5 CONCLUSION

1.5.1
All over South Africa, including in People's Forums, the same questions are posed over and over:

1.5.2
The RDP attempts to provide achievable, realistic and clear programmes to answer these questions. But it goes further than this and encourages people and their organisations to participate in the process. In the conclusion we outline proposed concrete steps to make such participation possible.


2. Meeting Basic Needs

2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

2.1.1
Poverty is the single greatest burden of South Africa's people, and is the direct result of the apartheid system and the grossly skewed nature of business and industrial development which accompanied it. Poverty affects millions of people, the majority of whom live in the rural areas and are women. It is estimated that there are at least 17 million people surviving below the Minimum Living Level in South Africa, and of these at least 11 million live in rural areas. For those intent on fermenting violence, these conditions provide fertile ground.

2.1.2
It is not merely the lack of income which determines poverty. An enormous proportion of very basic needs are presently unmet. In attacking poverty and deprivation, the RDP aims to set South Africa firmly on the road to eliminating hunger, providing land and housing to all our people, providing access to safe water and sanitation for all, ensuring the availability of affordable and sustainable energy sources, eliminating illiteracy, raising the quality of education and training for children and adults, protecting the environment, and improving our health services and making them accessible to all.

2.1.3
With a per capita gross national product (GNP) of more than R8,500 South Africa is classified as an upper middle income country. Given its resources, South Africa can afford to feed, house, educate and provide health care for all its citizens. Yet apartheid and economic exploitation have created the gross and unnecessary inequalities among us. Unlocking existing resources for reconstruction and development will be a critical challenge during the process of reconstruction.

2.2 VISION AND OBJECTIVES

2.2.1
The RDP links reconstruction and development in a process that will lead to growth in all parts of the economy, greater equity through redistribution, and sustainability. The RDP is committed to a programme of sustainable development which addresses the needs of our people without compromising the interests of future generations. Without meeting basic needs, no political democracy can survive in South Africa. We cannot undo the effects of apartheid overnight, but an extreme sense of urgency is required because reconstruction and development are major thrusts of the National Peace Initiative.

2.2.2
Attacking poverty and deprivation is the first priority of the democratic government, and the RDP sets out a facilitating and enabling environment to this end. The RDP addresses issues of social, institutional, environmental and macro-economic sustainability in an integrated manner, with specific attention to affordability. We acknowledge the crucial role of provincial and local governments in adopting and implementing what are described here mainly as national-level programmes to meet basic needs. The RDP is also based on the premise that user charges will take into account socio-economic circumstances.

2.2.3
The central objective of our RDP is to improve the quality of life of all South Africans, and in particular the most poor and marginalised sections of our communities. This objective should be realised through a process of empowerment which gives the poor control over their lives and increases their ability to mobilise sufficient development resources, including from the democratic government where necessary. The RDP reflects a commitment to grassroots, bottom-up development which is owned and driven by communities and their representative organisations.

2.2.4
The strategy for meeting basic needs rests on four pillars, namely:

2.2.4.1
creating opportunities for all South Africans to develop to their full potential;

2.2.4.2
boosting production and household income through job creation, productivity and efficiency, improving conditions of employment, and creating opportunities for all to sustain themselves through productive activity;

2.2.4.3
improving living conditions through better access to basic physical and social services, health care, and education and training for urban and rural communities, and

2.2.4.4
establishing a social security system and other safety nets to protect the poor, the disabled, the elderly and other vulnerable groups.

2.2.5
Through these strategies the RDP aims to meet the basic needs of the South African population in an integrated manner, combining urban, peri-urban and rural development processes. The integration of the RDP strategies is explained in Chapter Four, 'Building the Economy'. Priority areas that are considered in the present chapter are job creation through public works programmes, and provision of a variety of basic needs:

(The RDP objectives in education and training, arts and culture, sport and recreation, and youth development are elaborated in Chapter Three, 'Developing our Human Resources'.)

2.2.6
A programme of affirmative action must address the deliberate marginalisation from economic, political and social power of black people, women, and rural communities. Within this programme particularly vulnerable groups such as farm workers, the elderly and the youth require targeted intervention.

2.2.7
The role of women within the RDP requires particular emphasis. Women are the majority of the poor in South Africa. Mechanisms to address the disempowerment of women and boost their role within the development process and economy must be implemented. The RDP must recognise and address existing gender inequalities as they affect access to jobs, land, housing, etc.

2.2.8
The issue of population growth must be put into perspective. The present population policy, which asserts that overpopulation is the cause of poverty, ignores the role of apartheid in creating poverty, and also implies that the population growth rate is escalating (which is untrue). It is true, however, that a relatively high population growth rate exacerbates the basic needs backlogs our society faces. Raising the standard of living of the entire society, through successful implementation of the RDP, is essential over the longer term if we are to achieve a lower population growth rate. In particular, the impact of any programme on the population growth rate must be considered. A population committee should be located within the national RDP implementing structure. Policies on international migration must be reassessed bearing in mind the long-term interests of all of the people of the sub-continent.

2.2.9
The lack of accurate statistics to quantify and locate the problem of poverty underlines the need for a national unit to monitor poverty and deprivation in an ongoing manner, and guide further interventions. The unit must develop and evaluate key indicators for measuring the success of the RDP. It must pay special attention to women's legal, educational and employment status and the rates of infant and maternal mortality and teenage pregnancy. Indeed, monitoring and gathering of all statistical data must, where relevant, incorporate the status of women and their economic position with specific reference to race, income distribution, rural and urban specifics, provincial dimensions, and age particularities (for example, women pensioners and young women). It is also necessary to develop a more acute demographic map of our people, both as to where they are presently located and, more importantly, where they could move so as to facilitate supply of infrastructure and services.

2.2.10
The first democratic South African government should sign and implement the International Covenant on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights (and related conventions) and establish a domestic equivalent of a high-profile Covenant review committee and reporting procedure.

2.3 JOBS THROUGH PUBLIC WORKS

2.3.1
The democratic government must play a leading role in building an economy which offers to all South Africans the opportunity to contribute productively. All job creation programmes should cater particularly for women and youth. Implementing agencies should include representatives from women's and youth organisations. Further job creation policies are identified in Chapter Four, 'Building the Economy'.

2.3.2
In the short term, the RDP must generate programmes to address unemployment. These measures must be an integral part of the programme to build the economy, and must also relate to meeting basic needs.

2.3.3
Although a much stronger welfare system is needed to support all the vulnerable, the old, the disabled and the sick who currently live in poverty, a system of 'handouts' for the unemployed should be avoided. All South Africans should have the opportunity to participate in the economic life of the country.

2.3.4
All short-term job creation programmes must ensure adequate incomes and labour standards, link into local, regional or national development programmes, and promote education, training and community capacity and empowerment.

2.3.5
Public works programme. The key area where special measures to create jobs can link to building the economy and meeting basic needs is in redressing apartheid-created infrastructural disparities. There must be a coordinated national public works programme to provide much-needed infrastructure, to repair environmental damage, and to link back into, expand and contribute to the restructuring of the industrial and agricultural base.

2.3.6
A further component of the public works programme must be provision of education and training and the involvement of communities in the process so that they are empowered to contribute to their own governance. Assets created by a public works project must be technically sound.

2.3.7
The public works programme must maximise the involvement of women and youth in the poorest rural households and most deprived regions to create assets such as water supply, sanitation and clinics. This must have significant socio-economic benefits, particularly with respect to production which meets women's basic needs (such as child-care facilities).

2.3.8
The public works programme must coordinate with and link to other job creation and labour-intensive construction initiatives. A community development fund could be set up within the context of a national public works programme to make resources available to communities. Care must be taken to ensure that disbursements from such a fund are carefully controlled and relate to local and regional development plans.

2.3.9
A national coordinating agency located in the implementing office of the RDP must ensure that the public works programme is based on the capital programmes at central, provincial and local level, give priority to job creation and training, target the most marginalised sectors of society, and where possible encourage and support self-employment through small and medium enterprise creation to ensure sustainability of skills. Such programmes must not abuse labour standards nor create unfair competition within sectors of the economy.

2.4 LAND REFORM

2.4.1
Land is the most basic need for rural dwellers. Apartheid policies pushed millions of black South Africans into overcrowded and impoverished reserves, homelands and townships. In addition, capital-intensive agricultural policies led to the large-scale eviction of farm dwellers from their land and homes. The abolition of the Land Acts cannot redress inequities in land distribution. Only a tiny minority of black people can afford land on the free market.

2.4.2
A national land reform programme is the central and driving force of a programme of rural development. Such a programme aims to address effectively the injustices of forced removals and the historical denial of access to land. It aims to ensure security of tenure for rural dwellers. And in implementing the national land reform programme, and through the provision of support services, the democratic government will build the economy by generating large-scale employment, increasing rural incomes and eliminating overcrowding.

2.4.3
The RDP must implement a fundamental land reform programme. This programme must be demand-driven and must aim to supply residential and productive land to the poorest section of the rural population and aspirant farmers. As part of a comprehensive rural development programme, it must raise incomes and productivity, and must encourage the use of land for agricultural, other productive, or residential purposes.

2.4.4
The land policy must ensure security of tenure for all South Africans, regardless of their system of land-holding. It must remove all forms of discrimination in women's access to land.

2.4.5
The land reform programme has two aspects: redistribution of residential and productive land to those who need it but cannot afford it, and restitution for those who lost land because of apartheid laws.

2.4.6
Land redistribution. The land redistribution programme will realise its objectives in various ways, including strengthening property rights of communities already occupying land, combining market and non-market mechanisms to provide land, and using vacant government land.

2.4.7
The redistribution programme should use land already on sale and land acquired by corrupt means from the apartheid state or mortgaged to state and parastatal bodies. Where applicable, it will expropriate land and pay compensation as the Constitution stipulates. Land acquired from the apartheid state through illegal means must be recovered after due process of investigation. The land reform programme must include land outside of the historically black areas. All legal provisions which may impede the planning and affordability of a land reform programme must be reviewed and if necessary revised.

2.4.8
The democratic government must provide substantial funding for land redistribution. In addition, beneficiaries must pay in accordance with their means. A land tax on rural land must be based on clear criteria, must help to free up underutilised land, must raise revenues for rural infrastructure, and must promote the productive use of land.

2.4.9
Rural infrastructure, support services and training at all levels must be provided to ensure that land can be utilised effectively. Within this, water provision must take priority, followed by provision of basic health care. To this end a safe rural water supply programme must begin in the first year of the RDP.

2.4.10
A democratic government must ensure secure tenure rights for all South Africans by adopting a tenure policy that recognises the diverse forms of tenure existing in South Africa. It must support the development of new and innovative forms of tenure such as Community Land Trusts and other forms of group land-holding.

2.4.11
Women face specific disabilities in obtaining land. The land redistribution programme must therefore target women. Institutions, practices and laws that discriminate against women's access to land must be reviewed and brought in line with national policy. In particular, tenure and matrimonial laws must be revised appropriately.

2.4.12
The programme must include the provision of services to beneficiaries of land reform so that they can use their land as productively as possible. Assistance must include support for local institution building, so that communities can devise equitable and effective ways to allocate and administer land.

2.4.13
Land restitution. To redress the suffering caused by the policy of forced removals, the democratic government must, through the mechanism of a land claims court, restore land to South Africans dispossessed by discriminatory legislation since 1913. This court must be accessible to the poor and illiterate. It must establish processes that enable it to take speedy decisions. In order for this court to function effectively, constitutional rights to restitution must be guaranteed.

2.4.14
The land reform programme, including costing, implementing mechanisms, and a training programme, must be in place within one year after the elections. The programme must aim to redistribute 30 per cent of agricultural land within the first five years of the programme. The land restitution programme must aim to complete its task of adjudication in five years.

2.5 HOUSING AND SERVICES

2.5.1
The lack of adequate housing and basic services in urban townships and rural settlements today has reached crisis proportions. The urban housing backlog in 1990 was conservatively estimated at 1.3 million units. Including hostels and rural areas, the backlog rises to approximately three million units. To this should be added an estimated 200,000 new households each year. There is, unfortunately, little research available on the rural housing situation and the bantustans.

2.5.2
About 50,000 houses were built in South Africa in 1992. This figure could reasonably be increased to over 300,000 units each year by the end of the RDP's five-year programme. At minimum, one million low-cost houses should be constructed over five years. These units should be specifically intended for low-income households and should include the rural areas.

2.5.3
The housing problems created by apartheid and by the limited range of the capitalist housing markets have been aggravated by the absence of a coherent national housing policy. A mass housing programme can help generate employment, skills and economic activity, both directly and indirectly, and should help ensure peace and stability. A single national housing department should help to consolidate the previously fragmented approach. The private sector and civil society also have important roles to play in expanding housing delivery and financing capacity. The development of small, medium-sized and micro enterprises owned and run by black people must be incorporated into the housing delivery programme.

2.5.4
Right to housing. The RDP endorses the principle that all South Africans have a right to a secure place in which to live in peace and dignity. Housing is a human right. One of the RDP's first priorities is to provide for the homeless.

2.5.5
Although housing may be provided by a range of parties, the democratic government is ultimately responsible for ensuring that housing is provided to all. It must create a policy framework and legislative support so that this is possible, and it must allocate subsidy funds from the budget - to reach a goal of not less than five per cent of the budget by the end of the five-year RDP - so that housing is affordable to even the poorest South Africans.

2.5.6
The approach to housing, infrastructure and services must involve and empower communities; be affordable, developmental and sustainable; take account of funding and resource constraints, and support gender equality. The RDP is committed to establishing viable communities in areas close to economic opportunities and to health, educational, social amenities and transport infrastructure.

2.5.7
Housing standards. As a minimum, all housing must provide protection from weather, a durable structure, and reasonable living space and privacy. A house must include sanitary facilities, storm-water drainage, a household energy supply (whether linked to grid electricity supply or derived from other sources, such as solar energy), and convenient access to clean water. Moreover, it must provide for secure tenure in a variety of forms. Upgrading of existing housing must be accomplished with these minimum standards in mind.

2.5.8
Community organisations and other stakeholders must establish minimum basic standards for housing types, construction, planning and development, for both units and communities. Legislation must also be introduced to establish appropriate housing construction standards, although such standards should not preclude more detailed provisions negotiated at local level.

2.5.9
Legislation. Legislation must be rapidly developed to address issues such as tenants' rights, squatters' rights, the rights of people living in informal settlements, community reinvestment by banks, evictions, consumer protection, land restoration, community participation in planning and development, and anti-discrimination protection. Exploitation in rentals charged and in quality of housing provided must be specifically legislated against. All legislative obstacles and constraints to housing and credit for women must be removed. The democratic government must promote and facilitate women's access to housing and to appropriate community design. The provision of appropriate housing for the elderly and the disabled is also an important priority.

2.5.10
Administration. Administrative procedures must be simple, cheap, quick, transparent, must support community participation and must prevent corruption, with no form of discrimination of any kind whatsoever.

2.5.11
Land. Land for housing must be suitably located geologically, environmentally, and with respect to economic opportunities and social amenities. The democratic government must intervene to facilitate access to such land. Land speculation must be prevented and land monopolies broken up. Land planning must involve the communities affected. Land taxes and zoning should seek to promote urban development patterns consistent with RDP objectives.

2.5.12
Tenure. The democratic government must ensure a wide range of tenure options including individual and collective home ownership as well as rental, and facilitate a wide range of housing types. Sufficient affordable rental housing stock should be provided to low-income earners who choose this option.

2.5.13
The democratic government must support the transfer of houses to those who have been denied the opportunity to own houses in the past, especially female heads of household. The transfer of houses to long-term residents, as has been negotiated, must be completed. Fees charged by the democratic government for the transfer of private housing must be made more affordable.

2.5.14
Subsidies. Government funds and private sector funding must be blended in order to make housing finance affordable. A national housing bank and national home loan guarantee fund must be initiated to coordinate subsidies and financing most efficiently. Subsidies must be provided in ways which reduce corruption, promote transparency, target the poor and eliminate gender discrimination. Mechanisms (such as time limits on resale, or compulsory repayment of subsidies upon transfer of property) must be introduced to prevent speculation and downward raiding. Subsidies could apply to a variety of tenure forms, but must be paid directly to individuals, groups or community-controlled institutions. Communities must get sufficient funds in order to ensure that they are not divided.

2.5.15
Finance. End-user finance and credit must be made available for diverse tenure forms, community designs and housing construction methods. Commercial banks must be encouraged, through legislation and incentives, to make credit and other services available in low-income areas; 'redlining' and other forms of discrimination by banks must be prohibited. Community-controlled financing vehicles must be established with both private sector and government support where necessary. Locally controlled Housing Associations or cooperatives must be supported, in part to take over properties in possession of banks due to foreclosure. Unemployment bond insurance packages and guarantee schemes with a demand-side orientation must be devised. Interest rates must be kept as low as possible.

2.5.16
Hostels. Hostels must be transformed, upgraded and integrated within a policy framework that recognises the numerous interest groups in and around hostels and provides a range of housing options, including both family units and single people. The transformation of hostels must not deny any individuals or households access to the cities, including workers who maintain a rural base, families who desire integration into the city, and women with no security. Policies must address integration of hostels into communities, their safety and privacy (especially for women and children), and the various family living arrangements in hostels. Migrant labour, a consequence of past recruitment policies, will persist in the immediate future. Some housing types should be developed to cater for migrant workers and for those who engage in circular migration between city and countryside. Privately-owned hostels must be given particular attention. Short-term repairs (including provision of basic services and a baseline healthy environment) are a first priority, but must be consistent with long-term transformation. A fundamental point of departure is affordability. The democratic government must upgrade hostels where residents cannot pay costs. Hostels programmes must put appropriate dispute resolution mechanisms in place, must be linked to programmes for the unemployed, and address the legacy of migrant labour.

2.5.17
Rural housing. Rural people have specific concerns around housing, such as tenure forms on trust land; the relationship with the commercial agricultural sector; inadequate or non-existent bulk infrastructure; farm workers housed on the farms; the legacy of apartheid removals and resettlements; access to land, and land claims procedures and processes. In rural areas, problems of ensuring full property and home-ownership rights for women are likely to be greater. A rural housing action plan must be developed to address this. While recognising that rural incomes are far lower, the democratic government must consider rural housing needs in calculating backlogs, and make provision for gradually improving housing in rural areas. In particular, labour tenants require security of tenure, and legal defence and advice offices must be established to assist farm workers in cases of eviction.

2.5.18
Role players. All actors in the housing sector must be identified and their roles clearly defined, to enable coordinated and efficient housing provision. Role players include civic associations and other community groups, the public sector, non-governmental organisations, private sector developers and construction materials firms, trade unions, financial institutions, etc. The work of the National Housing Forum should be encouraged to continue, but there must be effective public sector participation as well. Duplication, inefficiency and ineffectiveness must be eliminated.

2.5.19
Construction. The costs of housing construction must be kept as low as possible while meeting the proposed standards. Bulk-buying facilities and other support mechanisms must be introduced in order to maximise use of local materials and to develop products that lower costs and increase the efficiency of housing provision. The building materials industries must be examined, both to improve productive output and to reduce costs. Cartels, price agreements and market share agreements must end, and consideration must be given to public, worker and community-based ownership where the market fails to provide a reasonably priced product. Community-controlled building materials suppliers must be encouraged, possibly with government subsidies to enhance competitiveness. An enforceable Code of Conduct must be established to guide developers. Special funds must be made available to support small and medium-sized enterprises. Resources should be provided in the form of loans for bridging finance, and grants for training and entrepreneurial development.

2.5.20
Delivery. Delivery systems will depend upon community participation. While the central government has financing responsibilities, provincial and local governments should be the primary agencies facilitating the delivery of housing and should be particularly active in the delivery of rental housing stock. Organisations of civil society should play a supportive role in relation to local government to enhance the delivery process. The roles of various entities in the private sector (the construction and supplies industry, etc.), local business concerns, local cooperatives and the concept of self-build in the delivery of housing must be examined in the light of effectiveness and local benefit. Delivery systems should aim to maximise job creation, the use of local materials, and local income generation and training. Support must be provided to black and, more generally, to small builders.

2.5.21
Community control. Beneficiary communities should be involved at all levels of decision-making and in the implementation of their projects. Communities should benefit directly from programmes in matters such as employment, training and award of contracts. Key to such participation is capacity building, and funds for community-based organisations must be made available. Educational institutions must also be reorientated to provide the skills needed for development.

2.6 WATER AND SANITATION

2.6.1
Water is a natural resource, and should be made available in a sustainable manner to all South Africans. Today, more than 12 million people do not have access to clean drinking water and 21 million people do not have adequate sanitation (toilets and refuse removal). Less than half the rural population has a safe and accessible water supply, and only one person in seven has access to adequate sanitation. Communities have had little say in the provision of water and sanitation, and decision-making in the water delivery agencies has reflected broader apartheid ideology. Access to water resources is dominated by a privileged minority while the majority of the population enjoy little or no water security.

2.6.2
South Africa is a water-scarce country. The existing limited water resources are also unevenly distributed, with 70 per cent of the country receiving 11 per cent of the rainfall. Apartheid South Africa used its military and economic might to coerce its neighbours into acting as sources of water, sometimes to the detriment of these countries' own water needs and of the sub-continental watertable.

2.6.3
Right to water. The fundamental principle of our water resources policy is the right to access clean water - 'water security for all'. The RDP recognises the economic value of water and the environment, and advocates an economically, environmentally and politically sustainable approach to the management of our water resources and the collection, treatment and disposal of waste.

2.6.4
Because of geographic limits to the availability of water, there must be very careful attention paid to the location of new settlements. The long-term environmental costs of sourcing water from neighbouring countries and between provinces must be given greater consideration. South Africa is also a drought-prone country, and a national drought management system and water reserves are a priority.

2.6.5
Goals of water management. Water management has three main goals: meeting every person's health and functional requirements, raising agricultural output, and supporting economic development. Decisions on water resources must be transparent and justified so as to reduce conflict between competing users. The use of water must be balanced with a realisation of the dangers of overuse and inappropriate disposal. Community organisations must also receive training in water management and must ensure such management is integrated into overall planning.

2.6.6
The RDP's short-term aim is to provide every person with adequate facilities for health. The RDP will achieve this by establishing a national water and sanitation programme which aims to provide all households with a clean, safe water supply of 20 - 30 litres per capita per day (lcd) within 200 metres, an adequate/safe sanitation facility per site, and a refuse removal system to all urban households.

2.6.7
In the medium term, the RDP aims to provide an on-site supply of 50 - 60 lcd of clean water, improved on-site sanitation, and an appropriate household refuse collection system. Water supply to nearly 100 per cent of rural households should be achieved over the medium term, and adequate sanitation facilities should be provided to at least 75 per cent of rural households. Community/household preferences and environmental sustainability will be taken into account.

2.6.8
The RDP's long-term goal is to provide every South African with accessible water and sanitation.

2.6.9
The RDP is committed to providing operation and maintenance systems which ensure minimum disruptions in service within two years. Particularly in rural areas, the RDP must develop appropriate institutions, including village water committees. Consultation with communities is essential in the provision of water.

2.6.10
Tariffs. To ensure that every person has an adequate water supply, the national tariff structure must include the following:

2.6.10.1
a lifeline tariff to ensure that all South Africans are able to afford water services sufficient for health and hygiene requirements;

2.6.10.2
in urban areas, a progressive block tariff to ensure that the long-term costs of supplying large-volume users are met and that there is a cross-subsidy to promote affordability for the poor, and

2.6.10.3
in rural areas, a tariff that covers operating and maintenance costs of services, and recovery of capital costs from users on the basis of a cross-subsidy from urban areas in cases of limited rural affordability.

2.6.11
The following institutions must be restructured:

2.6.11.1
the Department of Water Affairs should be responsible for the integrated management of the nation's water resources for the benefit of the whole nation, and should take responsibility for building competent local and provincial agencies that are capable of delivery;

2.6.11.2
at a second tier, water resource management must be founded on catchment-based institutions to ensure effective control over and supply of water resources, as well as effective management of and control over waste water, which means that the boundaries of such institutions will not necessarily coincide with provincial boundaries, and

2.6.11.3
at local level, local governments must be made responsible for water distribution, provision of adequate sanitation facilities and waste removal, and the financing of these services through appropriate tariff and local tax mechanisms.

2.6.12
The RDP must undertake a process to involve all relevant parties in updating the Water Act to ensure the right of all South Africans to water security.

2.6.13
South Africa has several major river systems which are shared with neighbouring countries. Since there is likely to be a need to import water from other countries, a future democratic government must pursue a policy of mutual cooperation with its neighbours and create bilateral and multilateral treaties which ensure the fair and adequate allocation of water resources to the benefit of the people of the region as a whole.

2.7 ENERGY AND ELECTRIFICATION

2.7.1
Although energy is a basic need and a vital input into the informal sector, the vast majority of South African households and entrepreneurs depend on inferior and expensive fuels. Rural women in particular face a heavy burden collecting wood which is an inefficient and unhealthy fuel. Urban households face high costs for paraffin and gas. Coal, where it is available, is cheap but results in severe health problems, an underpaid workforce, and the failure to assess and internalise environmental costs. Although \ has excess generating capacity, only 36 per cent of South African households have access to electricity, leaving some three million households unelectrified. Furthermore, some 19,000 black schools (86 per cent) and around 4,000 clinics are currently without electricity. Little attention has been paid to utilising sustainable energy sources such as solar power.

2.7.2
The control of electricity distribution by the system of racially separate local government has resulted in a terribly fragmented industry currently unable to finance or sustain a large-scale electrification programme in an equitable fashion. At present there are around 430 electricity distributors and more than 1,000 domestic electricity tariffs in South Africa. Rural electrification has been largely ignored except for commercial white farms.

2.7.3
Past South African energy policies concentrated on achieving energy self-sufficiency at enormous cost (such as the Mossgas project), but seriously neglected the household sector. Future energy policy must concentrate on the provision of energy services to meet the basic needs of poor households, stimulate productive capacity and urgently meet the energy needs associated with community services such as schools, clinics and water supplies. Energy policies must be developed on the basis of an integration of supply-side and demand-side considerations.

2.7.4
Energy sources. Immediate policies to meet energy needs must include a low-smoke coal programme, improved management of natural woodlands, social forestry programmes, commercial woodlots, and support for the transport of wood from areas of surplus to areas of need. Gas and paraffin prices must be reduced through better regulation and by bringing bulk supplies closer to households.

2.7.5
Energy efficiency and conservation must be a cornerstone of energy policies. This will involve the adoption of least-cost planning approaches; the improvement of dwelling thermal performance; the promotion of energy-efficient appliances; the use of solar water heaters; appliance labelling, and the implementation of time-of-use electricity tariffs. Financial assistance to ensure households have access to efficient appliances will be essential. The environmental impact of different energy sources must be assessed.

2.7.6
The regulation of liquid fuels is necessary to ensure a stable, high-quality supply, stable investment and low input prices to the economy and consumers.

2.7.7
Electricity for all. An accelerated and sustainable electrification programme must provide access to electricity for an additional 2.5 million households by the year 2000, thereby increasing the level of access to electricity to about 72 per cent of all households (double the present number). Both grid and non-grid power sources (such as solar cells and generators) must be employed. All schools and clinics must be electrified as soon as possible. Communities must be involved in the planning and execution of this programme. Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises must be given support and shown preference in the tendering process.

2.7.8
The electrification programme will cost around R12 billion with annual investments peaking at R2 billion. This must be financed from within the industry as far as possible via cross-subsidies from other electricity consumers. Where necessary the democratic government will provide concessionary finance for the electrification of poor households in remote rural areas. A national Electrification Fund, underwritten by a government guarantee, must be created to raise bulk finance from lenders and investors for electrification. Such a fund could potentially be linked to a Reconstruction Fund to be utilised for other related infrastructural financing needs. A national domestic tariff structure with low connection fees must be established to promote affordability.

2.7.9
Energy Policy Council. A national Energy Policy Council should be established to bring together stakeholders including the government, unions, civics, the energy industries, and consumers. This Energy Policy Council should manage the Electrification Fund and formulate energy policies.

2.7.10
Until the formation of the Energy Policy Council the National Electricity Forum must continue to work towards agreement on the restructuring of the fragmented electricity industry. To assist with this a powerful, independent, national electricity regulator must be established to enforce public policy, ensure long-term financial viability, assure environmental sustainability, and act as an ombuds in the event of conflicts between consumers, government and the electricity industry.

2.8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS

2.8.1
Telecommunications is an information infrastructure and must play a crucial role in South Africa's health, education, agricultural, informal sector, policing and safety programmes. Under apartheid the provision of telecommunications was racially distorted. For black people it is estimated that less than 1 line per 100 persons is in place compared with about 60 lines per 100 white persons. Other countries with comparable per capita wealth have 30 lines per 100 persons. The situation is far worse in rural areas.

2.8.2
The existing parastatal Telkom is restricted by heavy debt from engaging in substantial further borrowing, and an indiscriminate privatisation process has fragmented the telecommunications system. The lack of infrastructure has also restricted the provision of services to peri-urban and rural areas. Other telecommunications networks are not well integrated into the existing Telkom network.

2.8.3
The telecommunications sector is an indispensable backbone for the development of all other socio-economic sectors. An effective telecommunications infrastructure which includes universal access is essential to enable the delivery of basic services and the reconstruction and development of deprived areas.

2.8.4
The RDP aims to provide universal affordable access for all as rapidly as possible within a sustainable and viable telecommunications system; to develop a modern and integrated telecommunications and information technology system that is capable of enhancing, cheapening and facilitating education, health care, business information, public administration and rural development, and to develop a Southern African cooperative programme for telecommunications. In terms of the RDP, telecommunications services must be provided to all schools and clinics within two years.

2.9 TRANSPORT

2.9.1
The policy of apartheid has moved the poor away from job opportunities and access to amenities. This has burdened the workforce with enormous travel distances to their places of employment and commercial centres, and thus with excessive costs. Apartheid transport policy deprived the majority of people of a say in transport matters, and has led to the payment of huge travel subsidies; exposed commuters to vast walking distances and insecure rail travel; failed to regulate the kombi-taxi industry adequately; largely ignored the country's outrageous road safety record; paid little attention to the environmental impact of transport projects, and facilitated transport decision-making bodies that are unwieldy, unfocused, unaccountable and bureaucratic.

2.9.2
Rural areas require more frequent public transport and improved facilities, at an affordable cost. There is inadequate access for emergency services in rural areas, inadequate public transport frequencies and route coverage, poor coordination, and other inefficiencies. Indeed, in many rural areas there is no public transport at all.

2.9.3
An effective publicly-owned passenger transport system must be developed, integrating road, rail and air transportation. All privately-controlled passenger transport must be effectively regulated and controlled. A future transport policy must:

2.9.3.1
promote coordinated, safe, affordable public transport as a social service;

2.9.3.2
be flexible enough to take cognisance of local conditions in order to make best use of the available transport infrastructure;

2.9.3.3
ensure accountability so that the people have control over what is provided;

2.9.3.4
take into account the transport needs of disabled people;

2.9.3.5
clearly define the responsibilities of the various authorities;

2.9.3.6
ensure comprehensive land-use/transport planning;

2.9.3.7
promote road safety;

2.9.3.8
review subsidies (both operating and capital);

2.9.3.9
provide funds for long-term planning, and

2.9.3.10
facilitate high-density development to ensure efficient use of public transport.

2.9.4
As population increases, the numbers of travellers and the total distances travelled will also increase. The majority will be unable to afford private transport and will be dependent upon public transport. Given the need for increased mobility and the cost and environmental impact of accommodating the private motorist, the future emphasis must be on the provision of safe, convenient, affordable public transport.

2.9.5
Public transport. Commuters should be encouraged to use public transport, and should be actively discouraged from using cars (via parking, access and fuel levies). The funds so raised must be used to directly benefit the provision of public transport. As a first priority, rail transport must be extended. Bus lines must act as feeders to rail services, or as prime movers if rail is not available. Taxis must act as feeders to bus/rail services or as prime movers if neither rail nor bus is available. The subsidisation of parallel services along a common route will be avoided. Rural areas require more frequent public transport and improved facilities, at affordable costs.

2.9.6
At the same time, critical 'bottlenecks' in the road infrastructure should be improved so that the full capacity of the existing road network can be realised. However, the provision of primary road infrastructure must be directed towards and take cognisance of public transport needs.

2.9.7
Transport planning. The planning of transport for metropolitan and major urban areas must be in accordance with an urban/metropolitan growth management plan. A hierarchy of modes should guide the financing of infrastructure improvements and payment of operating subsidies for public transport. Travel modes should not compete. In rural areas, provincial governments and district councils must present transport plans, including extensive road building and road improvement.

2.9.8
South Africa has the worst road safety record in the world. Central government funds allocated to ameliorate this situation via education, enforcement and engineering have been negligible. Road safety must be given the priority it deserves. The transport authorities must be charged with the task of reducing accidents and must be given the funds to achieve that goal.

2.9.9
For all public transport services to be fully integrated their functioning must be coordinated and financed by one organisation. The organisation should be accountable to the public and responsible for the provision, coordination and funding of all public transport and the infrastructure necessary for public transport (in cooperation with the national public works programme). The organisation should specifically address current problems such as uncoordinated tariff structures, duplication of services, and conflict as a result of different forms of ownership. Minimum norms and standards, policy frameworks and the format of transport plans for national, provincial, urban and rural areas should form an integral part of the responsibilities of this organisation.

2.9.10
Provincial governments should be responsible for the provision and coordination of all primary inter-city transport outside the metropolitan areas and, on request, for localised, minor improvements for towns and villages beyond metropolitan areas.

2.9.11
Metropolitan Transport Authorities (MTAs) should be responsible for planning, coordination and provision of all 'metropolitan' transport facilities within metro areas. The MTAs could undertake local authority projects on an agency basis. The MTAs must be accountable to democratically elected metropolitan governments, and all transport projects must be in accord with metropolitan plans. Funding for public transport would come both from central government and from local rates and taxes. The MTAs must be empowered to impose such levies and taxes as may be appropriate and the funds thus raised must be used primarily to promote public transport.

2.9.12
With respect to other forms of transport, international conventions and treaties will determine part of the legal framework in which sea and air transport develop. Infrastructural development must, however, be extended through democratic consultations with various stakeholders. Harmonisation of infrastructural, legal and operational aspects of regional Southern African transport must be considered a priority.

2.9.13
The needs of women, children, and disabled people for affordable and safe transport are important. Adequate public transport at off-peak hours, and security measures on late-night and isolated routes, must be provided. Additional subsidies for scholars, pensioners and others with limited incomes will be considered.

2.10 ENVIRONMENT

2.10.1
Apartheid legislation distorted access to natural resources, denying the majority of South Africans the use of land, water, fisheries, minerals, wildlife and clean air. South Africa's apartheid policies, combined with the underregulated activities of local and transnational corporations, contributed to the degradation of environmental resources, including soil, water and vegetation. They encouraged the misuse of fertilisers and pesticides. They placed workers' lives at severe risk because dangerous practices and substances were inadequately monitored (mining in South Africa remains an extremely dangerous job). Poverty and environmental degradation have been closely linked. In general, existing environmental policies allow inefficient and wasteful use of water, energy and raw materials, and high levels of air and water pollution.

2.10.2
The democratic government must ensure that all South African citizens, present and future, have the right to a decent quality of life through sustainable use of resources. To achieve this, the government must work towards:

2.10.2.1
equitable access to natural resources;

2.10.2.2
safe and healthy living and working environments, and

2.10.2.3
a participatory decision-making process around environmental issues, empowering communities to manage their natural environment.

2.10.3
Environmental considerations must be built into every decision. To accomplish this, procedures must be set in place which oblige decision-makers to demonstrate what environmental considerations they take into account when considering projects.

2.10.4
Development strategies must incorporate environmental consequences in the course of planning. Measures such as land reform, provision of basic infrastructure, housing and targeted rural assistance (including extension services), and the maintenance of food security should ultimately reduce pressure on the natural environment.

2.10.5
The democratic government must revise current environmental legislation and administration with a view to establishing an effective system of environmental management. It must make use of environmental auditing, with provision for public disclosure. It must monitor those activities of industry which impact on the environment.

2.10.6
Strategies should include:

2.10.6.1
a system of waste management with emphasis on preventing pollution and reducing waste through direct controls, and on increasing the capacity of citizens and government to monitor and prevent the dumping of toxic wastes;

2.10.6.2
participation of communities in management and decision-making in wildlife conservation and the related tourism benefits;

2.10.6.3
environmental education programmes to rekindle our people's love for the land, to increase environmental consciousness amongst our youth, to coordinate environmental education with education policy at all levels, and to empower communities to act on environmental issues and to promote an environmental ethic, and

2.10.6.4
the establishment of procedures, rights and duties to allow workers to monitor the effects of pollution, noise levels and dangerous practices both within the workplace and in its impact on surrounding communities and environment.

2.10.7
Marine resources must be managed and controlled for the benefit of all South Africans, especially those communities whose livelihood depends on resources from the sea. The fishing stock must be managed in a way that promotes sustainable yield and the development of new species. The democratic government must assist people to have access to these resources. Legislative measures must be introduced to establish democratic structures for the management of sea resources.

2.10.8
Environmental regulation. South Africa has wide-ranging environmental legislation. However, responsibility for implementation is scattered over a number of departments (Agriculture, Water Affairs and Forestry, Health, and Mineral Resources) from national to local authority level. The Department of Environmental Affairs administers only a few of the relevant Acts. This has resulted in discrepancies, anomalies and ineffectiveness.

2.10.9
Fines for environmental offences are inadequate and inconsistent. The South African legal system makes it difficult to obtain locus standi in the courts on environmental issues.

2.10.10
The democratic government must rationalise environmental legislation into a cohesive and workable form. It must legislate the right of access to information on environmentally harmful practices. It must also require compulsory environmental impact assessments for all large-scale projects. It must establish an environmental ombuds and criminalise environmental offences. It must review and conform with international conventions and agreements on environmental issues.

2.10.11
Environmental management must be transformed to promote the active participation of civil society.

2.10.12
Both local and provincial governments must play a crucial role in environmental management. Strong provincial departments of Environmental Affairs must be established. A national Department of Environmental Affairs must ensure overall standards and financing of environmental protection.

2.10.13
A Commission on the Environment must be established as an independent body to ensure transparency and accountability on the part of agencies dealing with the environment. Such a body must facilitate the gathering, collation and publication of data on the environment. It must also provide an interface between civil society and public agencies responsible for the environment and natural resources.

2.11 NUTRITION

2.11.1
An enormous number of South African children under the age of 10 years are malnourished and/or stunted. Many thousands of adults, especially the elderly, are hungry, and millions of people, young and old, live in constant fear of being hungry.

2.11.2
The RDP must ensure that as soon as possible, and certainly within three years, every person in South Africa can get their basic nutritional requirement each day and that they no longer live in fear of going hungry.

2.11.3
The most important step toward food security remains the provision of productive employment opportunities through land reform, jobs programmes and the reorganisation of the economy.

2.11.4
Short-term interventions should support nutrition education and the stable, low-cost supply of staple foods combined with carefully targeted income transfers and food subsidies.

2.11.5
The democratic government must ensure that VAT is not applied to basic foodstuffs, improve social security payments and reintroduce price controls on standard bread. It must enhance the efficiency of marketing so that farmers receive good prices while consumers pay as little as possible. To that end, the government should curb the powers of marketing boards and monopolies, and review the effect of tariffs.

2.11.6
The democratic government should institute a National Nutrition Surveillance System, which should aim to weigh a statistically significant proportion of children under the age of five years each month to establish their levels of growth and wellbeing. These simple data will provide measures of food security in each area, measures which are essential both for health planning and for targeting relief, for instance during drought. More widely, South Africa currently lacks an early warning system which can alert central authorities to threats to food and water security. The RDP should establish institutions to collect and monitor nutritional and other key socio-economic and agricultural data.

2.12 HEALTH CARE

2.12.1
The mental, physical and social health of South Africans has been severely damaged by apartheid policies and their consequences. The health care and social services that have developed are grossly inefficient and inadequate. There are, by international standards, probably enough nurses, doctors and hospital beds. South Africa spends R550 per capita per annum on health care. This is nearly 10 times what the World Bank estimates it should cost to provide basic public health services and essential clinical care for all, yet millions of our people are without such services or such care. Health services are fragmented, inefficient and ineffective, and resources are grossly mismanaged and poorly distributed. The situation in rural areas is particularly bad.

2.12.2
This section of the RDP draws attention to a number of programmes designed to restructure the health care services in South Africa. The aim is to ensure that all South Africans get infinitely better value for the money spent in this area, and that their mental, physical and social health improves both for its own sake and as a major contribution to increasing prosperity and the quality of life for all.

2.12.3
A fundamental objective of the RDP is to raise the standard of living through improved wages and income-earning opportunities, and to improve sanitation, water supply, energy sources, and accommodation. All of this will have a positive impact on health. Many other policies and programmes affect health, and their implications should be explored and considered.

2.12.4
All policies affecting health must take into consideration the fact that South Africa is an integral part of the Southern African region and has regional responsibilities to prevent and to combat the spread of disease.

2.12.5
National Health System (NHS).

2.12.5.1
One of the first priorities is to draw all the different role players and services into the NHS. This must include both public and private providers of goods and services and must be organised at national, provincial, district and community levels.

2.12.5.2
Reconstruction in the health sector will involve the complete transformation of the entire delivery system. All relevant legislation, organisations and institutions must be reviewed in order to redress the harmful effects of apartheid; encourage and develop delivery systems and practices that are in line with international norms and standards; introduce management practices that promote efficient and compassionate delivery of services, and ensure respect for human rights and accountability to users, clients and the public at large.

2.12.5.3
Communities must be encouraged to participate actively in the planning, managing, delivery, monitoring and evaluation of the health services in their areas.

2.12.5.4
There must be a single Minister of Health and a single National Health Authority (NHA). The NHA must develop national policies, standards, norms and targets, allocate the health budget, coordinate the recruitment, training, distribution and conditions of service of health workers, and develop and implement a National Health Information System.

2.12.5.5
Each province must have a Provincial Health Authority (PHA). This PHA must be responsible for providing support to all the District Health Authorities (DHAs) in its province. This must include providing secondary and tertiary referral hospitals, regulating private hospitals, running training facilities and programmes, evaluating and planning services, and any other support the districts may request. The aim is to encourage high-quality, efficient services through decentralised management and local accountability.

2.12.5.6
The main bodies responsible for ensuring access to and the delivery of health services must be the DHAs. Each DHA must be responsible for the health of between 200,000 and 750,000 people in a defined geographical area. About 100 DHAs will, between them, cover the whole country and their boundaries must, as far as possible, be the same as the new local government boundaries. Each DHA will be responsible for all primary health care services in its district, including independent general practitioners and community hospitals. The DHA must have as much control over its budget as possible, within national and provincial guidelines.

2.12.5.7
In the first phase of the RDP the government must develop at least one model or pilot health district in each province. Each DHA must appoint a team, led by a District Health Manager and linked to a District Development Committee, to evaluate, plan and manage health services in the district, including management of the district health budget. The system must encourage the training, use and support of community health workers as cost-effective additional or alternative personnel.

2.12.5.8
The whole NHS must be driven by the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. This emphasises community participation and empowerment, inter-sectoral collaboration and cost-effective care, as well as integration of preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitation services.

2.12.5.9
All providers of health services must be accountable to the local communities they serve through a system of community committees and through the DHAs which must be part of democratically elected local government. Other strategies must include a charter of patients' rights that will be displayed in all health facilities; a Code of Conduct for health workers; a programme to promote gender balance in all categories of health workers; restructuring statutory bodies; support and supervision of staff at peripheral facilities and inter-sectoral structures at district, provincial and national levels.

2.12.5.10
Once statutory bodies have been rationalised and restructured to reflect the rich diversity of the South African people, they should be better able to promote and protect standards of training and of health care, and to protect the rights and interests of patients and clients.

2.12.6
Women and children.

2.12.6.1
Health care for all children under six years of age, and for all homeless children, must immediately be provided free at government clinics and health centres.

2.12.6.2
There must be a programme to improve maternal and child health through access to quality antenatal, delivery and postnatal services for all women. This must include better transport facilities and in-service training programmes for midwives and for traditional birth attendants. Targets must include 90 per cent of pregnant women receiving antenatal care and 75 per cent of deliveries being supervised and carried out under hygienic conditions within two years. By 1999, 90 per cent of deliveries should be supervised. These services must be free at government facilities by the third year of the RDP. In addition, there should be established the right to six months paid maternity leave and 10 days paternity leave.

2.12.6.3
Preventive and promotive health programmes for children must be improved. Breast-feeding must be encouraged and promoted, and the code of ethics on breast-milk substitutes enforced. A more effective, expanded programme of immunisation must achieve a coverage of 90 per cent within three years. Polio and neonatal tetanus can be eradicated within two years.

2.12.6.4
One important aspect of people being able to take control of their lives is their capacity to control their own fertility. The government must ensure that appropriate information and services are available to enable all people to do this. Reproductive rights must be guaranteed and reproductive health services must promote people's right to privacy and dignity. Every woman must have the right to choose whether or not to have an early termination of pregnancy according to her own individual beliefs. Reproductive rights must include education, counselling and confidentiality.

2.12.7
Mental and psychological health.

2.12.7.1
Millions of South Africans abuse alcohol, tobacco, cannabis (dagga), solvents like petrol and glue, and other harder drugs. Unless action is taken, substance abuse is likely to increase enormously. Abuse of these substances causes immense physical, mental and social damage and costs the country millions of rands each year. The RDP must aim to reduce greatly the present levels of substance abuse and to prevent any increase. Comprehensive strategies to change behaviour must include education programmes, reduction of advertising and increasing the price of tobacco and alcohol. Strong penalties for major drug traffickers must be imposed.

2.12.7.2
The RDP must aim to promote mental health and increase the quality, quantity and accessibility of mental health support and counselling services, particularly for those affected by domestic or other violence, by rape or by child abuse.

2.12.7.3
The RDP must seek to improve community care, rehabilitation and education for all disabled people, particularly the mentally disabled, and must support their families and care-givers. It must also increase access to relaxing environments such as recreational facilities.

2.12.7.4
There are deep divisions, fuelled by mutual suspicion and lack of communication, between traditional and other complementary healers and medical and social workers. This is not in the interests of people who use all types of healers. The RDP must aim to improve communication, understanding and cooperation between different types of healers.

2.12.8
Sexual health and AIDS. A programme to combat the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS must include the active and early treatment of these diseases at all health facilities, plus mass education programmes which involve the mass media, schools and community organisations. The treatment of AIDS sufferers and those testing HIV positive must be with utmost respect for their continuing contributions to society. Discrimination will not be tolerated. AIDS education for rural communities, and especially for women, is a priority.

2.12.9
Other health care programmes.

2.12.9.1
There must be a programme to ensure the prevention, early detection and treatment of specific priority diseases, including tuberculosis, carcinoma of the cervix, hypertension and diabetes.

2.12.9.2
The RDP must ensure improved access to emergency health services through the provision of more 24-hour emergency services accessible to communities. Access to services must be improved by the development of emergency response centres and appropriate transport and ambulance services, especially in rural areas.

2.12.9.3
There must be a programme to provide appropriate care for chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy lifestyles.

2.12.9.4
A unit within the NHS must coordinate and monitor services aimed at youth, in particular education campaigns to combat substance abuse, teenage parenthood and sexually transmitted diseases amongst the youth.

2.12.9.5
Occupational health services must be greatly expanded and legislation to protect the health of workers must be enforced. Particular attention must be given to protecting the health of the most vulnerable, including domestic, farm and commercial-sex workers. Workers must have a say in the application of laws, through their health and safety committees. Workers should be given check-ups for major diseases in the workplace. Penalties for violation of occupational health standards must be stricter. Laws must conform to International Labour Organisation standards and other international standards, and unions and state agencies must be empowered to monitor and enforce safety and health standards. An overhaul of workmen's compensation must include administrative restructuring to ensure swifter payment, increasing the coverage for permanently disabled workers to realistic levels, minimum benefit levels in support of low-wage workers, greater use of the compensation system to encourage better workplace health and safety standards, and a combined board to deal with preventive and compensatory aspects of worker safety and health.

2.12.9.6
The appropriate use of technology, especially sophisticated and expensive technology, is very important. A National Advisory Board on health technology should be established and should include representatives from all levels of the NHS. The Advisory Board must develop appropriate and rational policies, devise a system of quality control, and advise on regulations governing the importation and use of expensive technologies.

2.12.9.7
An effective National Health Information System is essential for rational planning and must be introduced. This system must ensure that accurate and comparable data are collected from all parts of the health system, that data are analysed at health-facility, district, provincial and national levels, and that those collecting the data see it as a useful and interesting activity. Mechanisms must be established for sharing information between different programmes and sectors.

2.12.9.8
A programme of Essential National Health Research must be initiated. This should increase consultation with patients, and should help to overcome the isolation and fragmentation of research efforts and to strengthen links between research, policy and action. Special attention must be directed to health systems research in order to improve the effectiveness of health service delivery.

2.12.10
Human resources for the NHS.

2.12.10.1
Core teams must be provided for every Community Health Centre and clinic. This will require incentives to attract staff to underserviced (especially rural) areas and increased training of Community Health Workers and Environmental Health Officers.

2.12.10.2
There must be a programme of retraining and reorienting all existing health workers to the Primary Health Care approach. The aim is to train 25 per cent of district health personnel by the end of 1995, and 50 per cent by the end of 1997.

2.12.10.3
Redistribution of personnel will be achieved through more appropriate training, through incentives to work in underserviced areas, through limiting openings for private practice in overserviced areas, and through contractual obligations for those receiving subsidised training.

2.12.10.4
Throughout the period of reconstruction and development strenuous efforts must be made to strengthen the public sector, to attract health workers in private practice back into the public sector, at least on a sessional basis, and to encourage active cooperation between the sectors with the common goal of improving the health of the nation.

2.12.10.5
One of the most important parts of the RDP in the health sector will be the complete transformation of health worker training. This must involve improving human resource planning and management systems; reviewing all training programmes; reviewing selection procedures, and developing new (and often short) training programmes to reorient existing personnel and to train new categories and auxiliary workers.

2.12.10.6
There is a particular need to train existing and new staff in the PHC approach, in management, in primary clinical care, in environmental health, in health promotion and advocacy, in occupational health and in the maintenance and repair of equipment.

2.12.11
Finance and drugs for the NHS.

2.12.11.1
The RDP must significantly shift the budget allocation from curative hospital services towards Primary Health Care to address the needs of the majority of the people. This must be done mainly by reallocating staff and budgets to district health services.

2.12.11.2
Within a period of five years a whole range of services must be available free to the aged, the disabled, the unemployed and to students who cannot afford health care.

2.12.11.3
Essential drugs must be provided in all PHC facilities. An essential drugs list must be established to reduce the current wasteful expenditure on inappropriate drugs.

2.12.11.4
The costs of medication in the private sector can be dramatically reduced through greater use of essential drug lists coupled with a single, nationally negotiated and well-publicised price for a given quantity of each drug.

2.13 SOCIAL SECURITY AND SOCIAL WELFARE

2.13.1
Apartheid contributed to the destruction of family and community life in various ways. The present racially-based, discriminatory social welfare services are piecemeal responses. They have little impact on the root causes of social problems and on the disintegration of the social fabric.

2.13.2
The RDP aims to transform the existing social welfare policies, programmes and delivery systems so as to ensure basic welfare rights are provided to all South Africans, prioritising those who have been historically disadvantaged.

2.13.3
Social welfare as a focus on basic needs and development. Social welfare includes the right to basic needs such as shelter, food, health care, work opportunities, income security and all those aspects that promote the physical, social and emotional wellbeing of all people in our society, with special provision made for those who are unable to provide for themselves because of specific problems.

2.13.4
The goals of a developmental social welfare programme are:

2.13.4.1
the attainment of basic social welfare rights for all South Africans, irrespective of race, colour, religion, gender and physical disability, through the establishment of a democratically-determined, just and effective social delivery system;

2.13.4.2
the redressing of past imbalances through a deliberate process of affirmative action in respect of those who have been historically disadvantaged, especially women, children, youth, the disabled, people in rural communities and informal settlements;

2.13.4.3
the empowerment of individuals, families and communities to participate in the process of deciding on the range of needs and problems to be addressed through local, provincial and national initiatives, and

2.13.4.4
the recognition of the role of organs of civil society in the welfare system, such as community-based rehabilitation centres and organisations, non-governmental development organisations, civic associations, the private sector, religious organisations, traditional and other complementary healers, trade unions and individual initiatives, and the establishment of guidelines for mutual cooperation.

2.13.5
A comprehensive, non-racial, unitary and democratic welfare system, including a negotiated national social security programme, must be introduced to aid the distribution of goods and services within the framework of public responsibility.

2.13.6
The policy and legislative framework. There must be a comprehensive review of all the policies and legislation regulating social welfare and social security. In particular the National Welfare Act of 1978, the Social Work Act of 1978, and Acts dealing with child and family welfare must be changed. New umbrella legislation which provides the framework for a development-oriented social welfare system based on the principles of equality, equity, access, user involvement and empowerment, and public accountability must be developed.

2.13.7
The national social welfare delivery system.

2.13.7.1
The RDP must ensure the greatest coverage in terms of benefits to the poorest through a restructured, integrated social welfare delivery system at national, provincial and local government levels. Unnecessary bureaucratic procedures must be removed.

2.13.7.2
All the key players at local, provincial and national levels responsible for the administration and service-delivery aspects of social welfare must be brought together to find ways of overcoming the difficulties in the present social welfare structure.

2.13.7.3
The restructuring of the social welfare system and services at national, provincial, district and local community levels must be in line with international norms and standards.

2.13.7.4
The planning, coordination and evaluation of social services must take place with community and inter-sectoral involvement.

2.13.8
A national Social Welfare and Development Department.

2.13.8.1
The national department must be responsible for the development of national policies, standards and norms, setting of priorities and targets, drawing up of the national budget on social welfare and allocating resources and grants to targeted areas.

2.13.8.2
The development of service conditions and professional standards to guide the training, education and employment of social service personnel must be the responsibility of the national department.

2.13.8.3
The national department must be responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of social welfare goals and priorities.

2.13.9
Provincial social welfare and development departments.

2.13.9.1
Each province must have a social welfare and development department. Such departments must be responsible for the planning, coordination, regulation, provision and evaluation of social welfare and community development services required at provincial and district levels.

2.13.9.2
Provincial departments must be responsible for social services at preventive (primary) and curative (secondary) levels. The management and distribution of social services at provincial, district and community levels must fall within the provincial department's authority.

2.13.10
Social security. The national social security system must be designed to meet the needs of workers in both formal and informal sectors, and of the unemployed, through:

2.13.10.1
social insurance which includes compulsory private contributory pension schemes or provident funds for all workers, and state social pensions;

2.13.10.2
linking contributory pension/provident funds and non-contributory schemes, as well as the transfer of contributory pensions, and

2.10.3
criteria which entitle workers to retire between the ages of 60 and 65, or to a social pension at 60.

2.13.11
Social safety net. Social assistance in the form of cash or in-kind benefits should be given to those most at risk (such social assistance could take the form of work opportunities in public works programmes; the provision of food, clothing and health care to those in need; cash in the form of disability grants, foster care grants, maintenance grants, or grants for veterans according to predetermined criteria).

2.13.12
The RDP aims to establish a national coordinating body with representation of workers, community members, the social welfare sector, the private sector, government and other appropriate organisations to review existing legislation, policies and procedures and to monitor the implementation of a transformed social security system.

2.13.13
Social security measures must initially focus on the needs of those who have been historically disadvantaged, such as domestic workers, agricultural workers, seasonal workers, workers who are disabled, women, the homeless, and families in rural and informal settlements.

2.13.14
Social welfare rights and the distribution of benefits must be guided by the principles of user empowerment and participation through community- and worker-based citizens-rights education programmes.

2.13.15
The RDP must focus on the reconstruction of family and community life by prioritising and responding to the needs of families with no income, women and children who have been victims of domestic and other forms of violence, young offenders and all those affected by substance abuse.

2.13.16
A comprehensive range of social service programmes must be developed in partnership with community-based structures to respond to the specific needs of the elderly and those in chronic emotional distress. Community-based and community-planned rehabilitation programmes must be encouraged to meet the needs of the disabled, and the democratic government must make adequate resources available for rehabilitation.

2.13.17
Children. The rights of children must be protected and measures must be taken to ensure that community-based and workplace care centres are provided for children in need of alternate care. The RDP must ensure that immediate steps are taken to remove all children from prisons and police cells. Alternate detention centres with proper health facilities, counselling and other support services must be provided for children. Special programmes protecting homeless children, especially those on the streets, must be put into place.

2.13.18
Human resources for the Social Welfare and Development Department. The existing pool of social service workers and their conditions of service must be reviewed. The present number of social workers (approximately 7,500) is inadequate, and their training is often inappropriate. Many social workers must be reoriented and retrained within a developmental approach to social welfare. The national, provincial and local social welfare departments must have both specialised and generic social service personnel at management, middle-management and operational levels. The curricula of social welfare and community development educational institutions must be reviewed. Within a five-year period a minimum of another 3,000 community development workers must be trained to work within provincial and local government structures to aid the process of prioritisation of community needs and allocation of resources. Social service managers must be trained with due regard to the need for affirmative action.

2.13.19
Inter-sectoral coordination. Inter-sectoral units on areas such as mental health, child care, women, and juvenile justice must be developed to plan and implement integrated strategies aimed at improving services to these target groups. In addition, the relationship between social welfare, health, community development and labour institutions and related sectors must be improved.

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