HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

RATIONALE FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

Human and Social Sciences contribute to developing responsible citizens in a culturally diverse, democratic society within an interdependent world. They will equip learners to make sound judgements and take appropriate actions that will contribute to sustainable development of human society and the physical environment.

 Human and Social Sciences comprise the study of relationships between people, and between people and their environment. These interactions are contextualised in space and time and have social, political, economic, environmental and spiritual dimensions.

 They develop distinctive skills and a critical awareness of social and environmental patterns, processes and events, based on appropriate investigations and reflection within and across related focuses.

 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES

  1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of how South African society has changed and developed.
  2. Demonstrate a critical understanding of patterns of social development.
  3. Participate actively in promoting a just, democratic and equitable society.
  4. Make sound judgements about the development, utilisation and management of resources.
  5. Critically understand the role of technology in social development.
  6. Demonstrate an understanding of interrelationships between society and the natural environment.
  7. Address social and environmental issues in order to promote development and social justice.
  8. Analyse forms and processes of organisations.
  9. Use a range of skills and techniques in the Human and Social Sciences context.

1. DEMONSTRATE A CRITICAL UNDERSTANDING OF HOW SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY HAS CHANGED AND DEVELOPED

The intention of this outcome is to equip learners with the attitudes, skills, knowledge and critical understanding to locate themselves in their own society, history and country in a global context. This background will enable them to develop, meaningfully and critically, a sense of self-worth and identity; and help empower them to exercise their full rights and responsibilities as citizens. It is also intended to promote nation building.

Where content or skills are differentiated by phase, this does not limit learning of that content or those skills to that phase: they can be learnt in any other phase in an appropriate way.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

(1)The sources from which a knowledge of the South African society is constructed are identified.

RANGE STATEMENT

Source

  • Oral tradition, especially to redress its past neglect in schools (e.g. accounts passed from generation to generation; praise songs, poetry, songs; accounts of myths, legends and natural events; interviews recorded; dance forms)
  • Contemporary oral sources (e.g. interviews of old people; interviews of people who lived during important events; oral testimony in courts and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission)
  • Archaeological sources (e.g. fossils; skeletal remains; rock paintings and engravings)
  • Sources of material culture (e.g. pottery remains; beadwork; iron tools)
  • Documentary sources (e.g. letters and diaries; government records; newspapers)
  • Cartographic sources (e.g. maps; aerial photographs; land use surveys; meteorological charts)
  • Statistical sources (e.g. population census; financial records; opinion surveys).

 One focus at this level should be on evaluating a wide range of sources and evidence; integrating them to arrive at reasoned judgements; and using them to construct knowledge. Oral sources should be given as much weight as any other sources. The socially constructed nature of knowledge should be discussed.

Intermediate
Phase
  One focus at this level is developing awareness of the wide range of sources available and means of accessing them, with special reference to oral sources. Relevant information processing skills should be developed, as well as skills related to using evidence in arguments.
Foundation
Phase
  One focus is developing awareness of the wide range of sources available and means of accessing them, with special reference to oral sources. At this level oral histories and traditions from school, family and community must accessed and discussed. In addition artefacts must be extensively used and sites visited.
Senior
Phase

 

 

 

 

(2) Key features of change over time are critically examined. Not all the aspects listed in the box below need be taught in all phases; but aspects should be selected in a way which preserves the coherence of the whole.

Key features, to include:

  • socio-economic relations
  • forms of state and power relations
  • forms of social organisation (e.g. hunter-gatherer, herder, farming, colonial (including slavery), industrial)
  • ideologies and belief systems
  • levels of inequality (e.g. social / class,individual circumstances)
  • Period:
  • Pre-colonial (from earliest hominids), colonial, post colonial, Apartheid, post-Apartheid.

Processes of change, to include:

  • dispossession
  • repression
  • resistance and struggle
  • liberation.

The four processes above should provide a framework for dealing with all other processes, including

  • migration
  • settlement
  • co-operation and trade
  • colonialism
  • conflict over resources
  • exploitation of resources (including human resources), especially in relation to minerals and farming
  • imperialism
  • nationalism (including African and Afrikaner)
  • different relations of production (e.g. unfree labour, wage labour, etc.)
  • formation of states and change in forms of states.

Key activities in this phase should focus on integrating knowledge and understanding so the learner develops a comprehensive view of major processes such as: colonialism, imperialism, decolonisation and liberation.

Intermediate
Phase
  By the end of this phase the learner should be familiar with major change processes in, and periods of, South African history.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase the main focus should be on exploring change processes in a variety of contexts, both familiar and unfamiliar.
Senior
Phase

 

 

 

 

 

(3) The interrelationships between South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world are explored. Particular attention to be paid to Southern Africa.

Periods:

  • to include pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial, Apartheid, post-Apartheid.

Aspects, to include:

  • trade and markets
  • technology (e.g. spread of new technologies such as iron-making)
  • slavery, colonialism, imperialism, decolonisation, neo-colonialism
  • ideologies, philosophies and religions
  • diplomatic and international agreements and organisations (e.g. UNO, SADC, OAU)
  • relations between less developed and more developed nations
  • globalisation (e.g. North-South relations, information revolution, entertainment).

 Key activities in this phase should focus on integrating knowledge and understanding so the learner develops a comprehensive view of major interrelationships between South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world.

Intermediate
Phase
  Particular attention to be paid to Southern Africa.

Periods:

  • to include pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial, Apartheid, post-Apartheid.

Aspects, to include:

  • trade and markets
  • technology (e.g. spread of new technologies such as iron-making)
  • slavery, colonialism, imperialism, decolonisation, neo-colonialism
  • ideologies, philosophies and religions
  • diplomatic and international agreements and organisations (e.g. UNO, SADC, OAU)
  • relations between less developed and more developed nations
  • globalisation (e.g. North-South relations, information revolution, entertainment).

 By the end of this phase the learner should be familiar with major kind of relationships between South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. They must also be aware of the work of major international organisations, such as the UNO.

Foundation
Phase
  Particular attention to be paid to Southern Africa.

Periods:

  • to include pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial, Apartheid, post-Apartheid.

Aspects, to include:

  • trade and markets
  • technology (e.g. spread of new technologies such as iron-making)
  • slavery, colonialism, imperialism, decolonisation.

 By the end of this phase the learner should be able to identify major kind of relationships between South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. They must also be able to identify major international organisations, such as the UNO.

Senior
Phase

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4) The impact of Apartheid on development is analysed by:
  • acquiring knowledge of the essential features of Apartheid
  • considering its impact on crucial aspects of South African society.
Scope of impact
  • local, national, regional(Southern Africa), international
  • the past, present and future.
  • Impact on areas of social life, including at least four of the following:
  • political system
  • sport and recreation
  • education
  • health
  • the economy
  • issues around land ownership and control
  • homeland system
  • housing
  • the environment
  • spiritual and cultural life
  • family life and children
  • women
  • workers
  • resistance by individuals, communities and organisations (locally, nationally and internationally).

By the end of this phase the learner should be able to show how the impact of Apartheid on development reveals the nature of the system as a whole.

Intermediate
Phase

 

  The main focus in this phase is to acquire a critical understanding of the basic nature of the Apartheid system and relate this to the everyday lives of ordinary people past and present.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners should be able to identify essential features of the Apartheid system and its impact on the lives of people past and present.
Senior
Phase

 

(5) Patterns of continuity and change in post-Apartheid South Africa are analysed. Patterns of redress and development, related to at least four of the following, or any other significant area of development:
  • education
  • housing
  • health
  • infrastructure, including electricity, water and transport
  • employment and careers
  • the legal system
  • strategies for redress and development (e.g. RDP)
  • trade, aid and investment in

Southern Africa

Problems and possibilities in relation to development, in two of the above areas at local, regional and national level

Learners should make informed and reasoned judgements about the factors promoting and obstructing redress and development.

Intermediate
Phase
  Through in-depth studies of particular patterns learners should be able to identify key factors influencing redress and development.
Foundation
Phase
  The learner, through activities such as role-play, should develop an awareness of the need for redress and development.
Senior
Phase

 

 

(6) Relations within and between communities are critically understood. Note: In at least two phases biographies (family and national or community figures) should be used to explore relationships within and between communities.

Main focuses, to include

  • Issues of unity, diversity and nation building
  • Policies, practices and attitudes which build identity, community and society, e.g. tolerance, equity, legislation, reconstruction, rehabilitation, positive perceptions of identity, valuing diversity, anti-bias action and conflict resolution
  • Policies, practices and attitudes which create division and conflict within and between communities, e.g. legislation (historically), discrimination and prejudice, exploitation, conflicts over resources, negative perceptions of identity
  • Commonalities (e.g. same economic system, common past) and diversities (e.g. of culture); groupings and alliances around interests and needs;
  • Finding diverse solutions to common problems (e.g. shelter, clothing, food, security).

Kinds of relations, to include

  • power relations
  • socio-economic and class
  • religious, ideological
  • political
  • cultural (e.g. customs, food, dress)
  • language
  • "race" relations
  • gender relations
  • sexuality
  • age and disability
  • close ties with neighbouring countries (e.g. family and educational).

Types of communities (We all belong to many different communities. Definitions of each of these communities listed here should be problematised and seen as value-laden.) To include those based on:

  • origin / ethnicity
  • common experience
  • location
  • belief system
  • work
  • interests
  • gender
  • families and clans
  • age and disability.

A major focus should be on the significance of communities in constructing both personal and national identities. Learners should have an appreciation of the complex nature of communities.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners must study at least three communities in depth, and arrive at general conclusions about the nature of relations within and between communities.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners must be able to identify commonalities and differences. In addition they should explore key relationships, within and between a number of communities. A major focus must be on the contribution of each community to national life.
Senior
Phase

 

 

 

 

(7) Relationships between people and key features of the environment are critically examined by:
  • acquiring knowledge
  • identifying and analysing relationships.

Scope

  • local/community to South Africa to Southern Africa and Africa.
  • Periods should include from pre-colonial times to present, and on to predict the future.

Key features, to include

  • the natural environment (e.g. topography, climate, river and other eco-systems)
  • the built environment (e.g. infrastructure including transport systems, water and electricity services, rural and urban settlements).

Context, to include

  • exploitation of resources
  • settlement (e.g. urbanisation)
  • migration
  • co-operation and trade
  • transport
  • regional inequalities in Southern Africa
  • organisation of production
  • political (e.g. pass-laws, resettlement, ‘Bantustan" system).

 An important focus in this phase is developing the ability to evaluate evidence and construct reasoned arguments about major issues: e.g., the location of a new factory or road.

Intermediate
Phase
  By the end of this phase the learner should be familiar with key features of the physical and built environments; and be able to identify and analyse major relationships.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners should be able to identify key relationships in their immediate environment; as well as links between local and broader environments. E.g., people depend on a river for water and the river is polluted far upstream.

 2. DEMONSTRATE A CRITICAL UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

This outcome compliments SO1. The broad intention is that learners will develop the ability to relate South African patterns of development with those they uncover in a global context. This provides a framework for the development of key concepts such as division of labour. Skills for the recognition and analysis of patterns are essential for effectively processing information.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

(1) Key features of a social system are identified by:

  • acquiring information
  • defining characteristics
  • explaining significance.
RANGE STATEMENTS

Note: For this Specific Outcome contemporary as well as past societies should be studied. Too often learners have been taught as if societies in the past do not exist in the present: e.g., as if the San still depend on hunting and gathering.

Key features, to include:

  • Socio-economic relationships (e.g. feudalism, wage labour)
  • Forms of state and power relations (e.g. slavery, wage labour, self-employment)
  • Ideologies and belief systems (e.g. colonial state, feudal state, democratic state)
  • Forms of social organisation (e.g. families, clans)
  • Levels of inequality (e.g. social classes, individual circumstances)
  • Division of labour
  • Production of a surplus.

Learners should be able to identify the defining characteristics of particular societies. In doing so, they should be able to construct reasoned arguments about significance, using a range of evidence.

Intermediate
Phase
  Key features of societies should be seen in relation to patterns of development: e.g., changes in transport systems or the organisation of production.
Foundation
Phase
  The main focus is on being able to identify key features of a range of societies, familiar and unfamiliar; and explain their importance in the lives of people.
Senior
Phase

 

 

 

 

  

 

(2) Types of societies are analysed. Learners should be aware that the categories used are socially constructed.

Types of society, to include:

  • developed / less developed
  • feudal
  • colonial
  • capitalist
  • socialist.

The learner should understand that societies are dynamic; and that each one is unique although they can fall into broad categories.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners must be able to relate the defining characteristics of a society (e.g., slavery) to other characteristics (eg., culture).
Foundation
Phase
  Learners should be able to differentiate between types of societies and identify some major characteristics: e.g., of subsistence farming.
Senior
Phase
(3) Similarities and differences between societies are explored by:
  • recognition of patterns of similarity and difference
  • analysis of patterns
  • recognition of the social construction of patterns.

 

Main focuses, to include:

examination of concepts of development, progress, well being and change (Definitions of value-laden terms such as progress should be problematised).

Scope

  • between two or more societies
    between societies at different times (e.g. before and after colonialism).

Skills, to include::

reading and construction of maps, graphs and other techniques for recognising and describing patterns.

Learners explore and investigate similarities and differences in order to arrive at an understanding of continuity and change in particular societies.

Intermediate
Phase
  By comparing societies, learners should be able to offer reasoned explanations of why particular changes have occurred in societies.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners must be able to recognise similarities and differences.
Senior
Phase
(4) Strategies of change and development in society are evaluated by:
  • identification of strategies and processes
  • consideration of theories of development where appropriate
  • analysis of strategies and processes.
Change and development strategies

e.g. Green revolution, urban planning, empowering women.

Types of impact, at different scales:

personal, community and global.

At this phase the main focus should be on learners being able to explain the reasons for the success or failure of strategies, and identify the criteria used in the evaluation.

Intermediate
Phase
  At this phase the main focus should be on learners being able to explain the extent to which strategies have succeeded and failed.
Foundation
Phase
Learners should be able to demonstrate knowledge of the existence of development strategies and their impact on peoples lives: e.g., electrification schemes.

3. PARTICIPATE ACTIVELY IN PROMOTING A JUST, DEMOCRATIC AND EQUITABLE SOCIETY

A society in which citizens do not develop the capacity to participate democratically cannot be democratic. The intention of this outcome is to build such capacity through developing appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes. Knowledge of the Constitution, and how to apply that knowledge in relation to real issues, is regarded as a main focus.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENTCRITERIA

(1) Key features of democratic processes are identified.

RANGE STATEMENTS

Features, to include:

  • representivety (indirect and direct; self and others)
  • decision-making (mandates, accountability, consultation, communication, procedures and rules).

 South Africa and at least one other society with respect to the above to be compared. Explanations given as to similarities and differences found.

Intermediate
Phase
  Investigation of democratic processes in an organisation or in local or national elections.
Foundation
Phase
  Discussing examples of decision-making processes the learners were involved in.
Senior
Phase
(2) Democratic processes are critically understood by:
  • participating in processes
  • investigating processes
  • reflecting on and evaluating processes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processes, to include:
  • decision making
  • reconciliation
  • conflict resolution
  • voting.

Contexts

  • in present and past
  • active participation or observed
  • local, national, international.

Activities

authentic: classroom, school or community based.

Participation in democratic processes in the school or community should be analysed. Reasoned explanations should be given of factors such as poor (or good) support for the democratic process.

Intermediate
Phase
  Investigation of a particular democratic process in depth. The main focus should be on examining processes such as: how the elections were organised; who participated and how; how issues were presented; how people were represented; (etc.)
Foundation
Phase
  Conducting an election or coming to a decision and then discussing the process to identify key aspects.

 

Senior
Phase
(3) A critical understanding of the South African Constitution is demonstrated by:
  • an awareness that constitutions are created by people to meet their common needs, in, e.g., schools, clubs, local organizations and other constitutions.

 

 

Nature of constitutions in general

Nature, Origin & Development of the SA constitution:

  • historical background, such as CODESA, Interim Constitution, previous constitutions
  • component parts and institutional structures (e.g. Constitutional Court).

Reviews of other constitutions:

  • two from Africa demonstrating different approaches
  • two from the rest of the world (at least one from Latin America or Asia). 
Intermediate
Phase
  Nature and development of the SA Constitution
  • From 1983 to 1996
  • Component parts and institutional structures:
    Bill of Rights; levels of government; structure of government at all levels.

 The main focus must be on the difference the above processes made in the lives of people.

Foundation
Phase
  Nature of the SA constitution
  • Bill of Rights (e.g. children’s rights)
  • Levels of government
  • Structure of government (e.g. premiers & MECs).

Learners discuss the above by drawing parallels with the ‘constitutions’ of the school, local clubs, etc.

Senior
Phase
(4) Informed judgments about issues are made in relation to the constitution by:
  • identifying the issues
  • analysing the issues
  • relating the issues to the constitution
  • arriving at a judgement
Scope, to include:

Past, present, and future perspective.

Judgements, might include:

  • the significance of the issues in relation to the constitution
  • relationship to other issues
  • links with legislation and relevant organisations (e.g. labour law and trade unions).

Issues, might relate to:

  • human rights
  • disability
  • gender
  • cultural issues
  • fairness and justice
  • racism, prejudice and forms of bias
  • distribution & ownership of resources
  • environmental management.

At least one issue should be local, one provincial and one national. Discussions should centre on what the issues had in common in relation to the constitution: that is, what general principles could be seen operating.

Intermediate
Phase
  Links between issues and the constitution are explored in order to develop the learners appreciation of the concepts of equity, democracy and justice.
Foundation
Phase
  Nature of constitutions in general appreciated through engaging in activities designed to illustrate the need for a constitution. Eg., suggesting rules for the school or a club.
Senior
Phase
(5) Projects to develop democratic practices are undertaken. Projects conducted through:
individual and group activities

Contexts might include:
school; community; nation; world (e.g. SRC, PTSA, RDP, etc.)

Aspects to include:

  • design
  • strategy
  • effectiveness
  • impact.

A major focus should be on defining areas which require democratic practices to be developed:

E.g., improving the participation by all learners in democratic processes, which might in turn require an anti-bias campaign to empower certain groups of learners.

Intermediate
Phase
  The major focus should be on conducting an investigation ( eg., a survey) to establish what the needs are in relation to developing democratic practices. Knowledge of the legal and other bases for democratic practices in the school and / or community should be acquired.
Foundation
Phase
  The concepts of democratic practice, equity and justice should be reinforced through activities related to the actual provision for these aspects in the school.
Senior
Phase
(6) Ability to access constitutional structures is demonstrated. Access, to include activities such as
  • writing letter
  • petitioning
  • lobbying.

Structures, to include:

  • Legal institutions ( e.g. courts, Human Rights Commission, public protectors)
  • Local, provincial and national government structures.

The need to access structures about an issue is identified and debated. The issue might be local or wider in scope. The means of making voices heard , and for obtaining information, should be discussed and strategies agreed on.

Intermediate
Phase
  The main focus should be on activities designed to build an awareness that structures exist which serve all citizens with respect to supporting the principles enshrined in the constitution.
Foundation
Phase
  Role-play and similar means must be used so learners can demonstrate they are aware of agencies such as constitutional structures.

 4. MAKE SOUND JUDGEMENTS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT, UTILISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES

Resources as treated in this outcome includes both human and natural. The main intention is for learners to develop the critical skills needed to make decisions which lead to the use of resources for sustainable development.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

(1) Resources are defined and identified.

RANGE STATEMENTS

Exploration of the concept of resources, to include:

  • consideration of how ’gifts of nature’ become resources
  • the notion that what is considered a resource depends on social and historical contexts (examples to include historical and cultural contexts around the world).

Categories of resources, to include:

  • human / natural
  • renewable / non-renewable
  • viable / non-viable, etc.

In this phase learners should identify resources which are both local and distant, and be able to distinguish how the importance of these resources will have changed over time.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase learners should be able to identify, explore and define a resource, be able to understand that there are different perspectives on what a resource is, and be able to place resources in categories.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase learners should be able to identify and explore a resource and to place it in a category.
Senior
Phase
(2) Relationship between human development and resources is explored by:
  • showing how resources are accessed by integrating, knowledge, skill and technology.
Scope

At different times and in different places
Factors influencing the relationship between resources and human development, to include:

  • access to education and training
  • location and distribution
  • ownership and control
  • available technology
  • exploitation.

Processes for accessing resources, to include:

  • extraction
  • utilisation
  • development
  • management.

Effects of resource development on individuals, communities and societies, to include:

  • benefits / advantages
  • disadvantages.

In this phase the focus should be on appreciating how resources are exploited, distributed and utilised, and understanding the importance of resource management in these processes.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the focus should be on investigating the resources which influence development and gaining more than one perspective on their value.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase learners should be able to understand the importance of the location of resources and their ownership and control, as well as their benefits and advantages.
Senior
Phase
(3) The impact of the distribution of power relationships and resources on social and environmental issues is understood.

 

Scale of issues
  • local, national, international
  • past and present.

Impact, to include:

  • evaluating how resources are used
  • consequences of good and poor resource management
  • consequences of the unequal distribution of resources.

Power relations (and the conflicts they engender), to include

  • ownership of resources
  • management policies (e.g. between individuals and groups)
  • gender, class, race (etc.)

Social issues, to include:

  • migration
  • colonisation
  • capitalism
  • urbanisation
  • globalisation.

Environmental issues, to include:

  • deforestation
  • over-utilisation
  • soil erosion
  • pollution
  • conflict over land-use
  • conservation (etc.)

In this phase the emphasis should fall equally on the social and environmental issues. Learners should reflect on power relations in terms of social, economic and political factors.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the focus will be on investigating the consequences of resource distribution and the conflict attendant on power relationships in ownership and management, against the background of migration and urbanisation, considering most of the environmental issues.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase learners will be able make links between the distribution of resources and power relations, and will understand how resources relate to at least two of the environmental issues.
Senior
Phase
(4) Strategies to address issues are designed and evaluated. Designing strategies, to include:
  • gathering information
  • analysing contexts
  • identifying strategies
  • taking action where appropriate
  • documenting what they have done.

Evaluating strategies, to include:

  • recognition of different perspectives on an issue
  • evaluating the merits of different perspectives.

In this phase the emphasis will be on understanding the reasons for the need to manage resources well, with a view to practical action related either to future employment or developing useful research skills.

Foundation
Phase
  In this phase learners should be able to design practical strategies of their own on a small scale to address a local issue(s).
Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase learners should undertake small practical projects with assistance.

5. CRITICALLY UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

Technology has to do with the way we solve problems to meet human needs. A bookshelf designed by a learner is as much technology as a computer. There are, however, particular technologies which have influenced the course of history and impacted on the environment. Learners must be able to grasp, and apply, both these aspects of technology.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 (1) Factors contributing to development and change in technology over time are analysed.

RANGE STATEMENTS

Areas of technology, to include:

  • agriculture
  • industry
  • transport
  • information / communication
  • organisation.

Factors influencing the development of technology, to include:

  • discoveries and inventions
  • response to need
  • response to a market.

Factors influencing changes in technology, to include:

  • economic necessity
  • markets
  • consumerism, discoveries and inventions
  • political changes.

Evaluation of the effects of change in technology, to include:

  • identification of effects
  • assessing advantages and disadvantages.
Intermediate
Phase
  The learner should be able to identify and explore the relationship between development and technology; and be able to categorise factors and recognise their effects on societies.
Foundation
Phase
  Through activities, be able to understand that an influential relationship between technologies and development exists.
Senior
Phase
(2) Differences and similarities in the type, development and use of technology in different places are analysed. Types of technology, to include:
  • organisation of production (land, labour, capital)
  • resistance to technology
  • social barriers to the use of technology.

Development and use, to include:

  • impact of technology in certain social contexts (e.g. home; community; workplace)
  • appropriate management of resources for future generations.

Differences and similarities, to include:

  • identification of differences and similarities
  • identification of contexts
  • assessment of the reasons for them
Intermediate
Phase
  The learner should be able to make a comparison between development and technology in use; be able to explore various perspectives on what technologies; and explore the impact of technology: e.g., on home, school and community.
Foundation
Phase
  Be able to make links between technological use and social development, in the context of home, school and community.
Senior
Phase
(3) Interrelationships between technology and human activity in various contexts are evaluated by:
  • analysis of interrelationships between technology & social change
  • exploration of social barriers to use of technology and action to overcome them
  • assessment of impact of technology on access to information and resources
  • critical evaluation of application of technology in different contexts.
Interrelationships, to include:
  • organisation of production (land, labour, capital)
  • resistance to technology
  • social barriers to the use of technology.

Impact of technology on human activity, to include:

  • agriculture
  • industry
  • transport
  • information / communication
  • organisation

Application of technology in different contexts:

  • e.g. agriculture, energy, manufacturing

Evaluation of the interrelationships, to include:

  • assessing advantages / benefits
  • assessing disadvantages
  • for different interest groups
Intermediate
Phase
  Be able to critically investigate the interaction between people and technology over time and space.
Foundation
Phase
  Be able to understand that technology influences human relations and activities, and that people produce technologies: and be able to use activities to conceptualise how this extends through time and space.
Senior
Phase
(4) Appropriate technology is used safely and efficiently to contribute to development.

 

Decisions about whether technology is appropriate, to include:
  • identification of technologies that can be used in various contexts
  • evaluation of technologies for various purposes
  • demonstration of appropriate use.
Intermediate
Phase
  Be able to critically investigate the uses of technology, its appropriateness, and its contribution to development.
Foundation
Phase
  Be able to critically examine the appropriateness of technology to peoples needs through investigations.

6. DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOCIETY AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

One major focus in this outcome is for learners to equip themselves with the means of locating themselves in the universe, on Earth. Another is for them to understand how we interact with complex natural systems and the consequences of this relationship. A third focus is on the reciprocal nature of this interaction.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 (2) Understanding of the earth as a life-sustaining system in the universe is demonstrated.

RANGE STATEMENTS

Conceptualization of links between people and the universe, to include:

  • appreciation of the contribution of astronomers and philosophers, from diverse cultures at different times and places (from at least South America, Africa and Asia)
  • myths, legends, theories and perceptions from a variety of perspectives (time and place)
  • the spiritual bond between people and the Earth at different times and in different places.

Factors which contribute to the earth being a life-sustaining system, to include:

  • the earth's position and orientation in space, its size and composition
  • the distinctive ability of earth to sustain people
  • the earth as providing resources (e.g. water, air and soil) to meet people's basic needs for survival.

 Learners must be able to explain how various factors contribute to the sustaining of life on Earth.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners must demonstrate knowledge and appreciation of the contribution of different peoples to our understanding of the Earth and the Universe.

Learners must be able to graphically represent the factors which contribute to the earth being a complex life-sustaining system.

Foundation
Phase
  Learners must be able to demonstrate that they appreciate attempts made by different peoples to make sense of the universe. Demonstrations could include the production of artistic representations and role play.

Learners are able to show, through activities that they appreciate how we depend on the Earth for our survival. E.g., by collecting examples of different kind of resources and explaining their importance.

Senior
Phase
(2) Knowledge of the nature of ecosystems and the significance of their diversity and interdependence for people is demonstrated. Characteristics of ecosystems
  • common to all
  • diverse (selected examples at different scales).

Significance of characteristics for people, to include

  • concept of biodiversity
  • provision of resources
  • environmental stability in complexity and balances.

Links between ecosystems, to include

  • role of the atmosphere, ocean and coastal systems in linking energy flows
  • implications of these links for ecosystems and people.

Learners should be able to conduct investigations and construct models which demonstrate the diversity and interdependence of ecosystems.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners should demonstrate that they have grasped the concept of the complexity of ecosystems and our location within them.

One ecosystem should be investigated in detail.

Foundation
Phase
  The concept of the complexity of ecosystems and that we are located within them is developed through practical activities.
Senior
Phase
(3) The impact of human activities on different natural systems is investigated by:
  • ascertaining impact
  • accessing information
  • identifying key causal factors and relationships
  • critiquing decision making processes and motives.
Scope
  • different types (e.g. commercial / subsistence farming)
  • different times
  • different places (local, South African, African, global).

Human activities, to include

  • Land issues (e.g. land ownership, and control)
  • economic activities ( e.g. farming, mining, forestry, services)
  • construction (e.g. of settlements, transport routes, dams)
  • leisure (e.g. tourism and travel)
  • population movements (e.g. migration, resettlement, urbanization)
  • wars
  • trade.

Natural systems, to include

  • forests
  • river basins
  • the atmosphere and oceans, etc.

Impacts, to include

  • pollution
  • deforestation
  • species extinction, etc.

Accessing information, from

  • field observations
  • measurements
  • written and oral accounts
  • statistics
  • photographs, etc.

Ascertaining impact, to include

  • positive/negative
  • on the natural environment and thus on people linked to it
  • scale and scope.

Key causal factors and relationships contributing to impact :

  • social, economic, political and physical (e.g. soil erosion due to the homelands policy, not population pressure per se).

Critique of decision making and motives, from perspectives of

  • equity
  • power relations
  • tenets of the SA constitution.

An investigation is conducted which allows the learner to analyse the connections between ecosystems and cultural, socio-economic or political factors.

 

Intermediate
Phase
  An investigation is conducted which allows the learner to give an account of some of the underlying causes of the impact of human activity on ecosystems.
Foundation
Phase
  An investigation is conducted which allows the learner to identify connections between changes in the environment and human activity.
Senior
Phase
(4) The impact of natural events and phenomena on people is investigated by:
  • accessing information ascertaining impact
  • identifying key causal factors and relationships.
Context
  • local, South African, global
  • in the present and past.

Identification of events and phenomena

  • (e.g. floods, desertification, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, droughts).

Accessing information, from

  • field observations
  • measurements
  • written and oral accounts
  • statistics
  • photographs etc.

Ascertaining impact, to include:

  • on the natural and built environment
  • on people (positive/negative; scale and scope; differences in impact across groups, places, structures).

Key causal factors and relationships contributing to nature of impact

  • social, political and economic factors (e.g. when a settlement is flooded settlement because it is too near to a river, the underlying cause is lack of access to land).

Analysis showing the relationship between a natural force and the social, economic and political circumstances of the people involved. The analysis should reveal the complex nature of the consequences of the interaction: e.g., both negative and positive.

Intermediate
Phase
  An investigation of an event in which natural forces impacted on the lives of people in a community. The analysis should show how people in different circumstances were effected.
Foundation
Phase
  The learners should access oral accounts of the impact of a natural force on a community or school and construct a narrative showing how different people responded to the event.
Intermediate
Phase
  A particular natural feature is investigated and
analysed with respect to its impact on the lives of a community. The analysis should include showing how
people in different circumstances are affected.
Foundation
Phase
  Role play and other activities are used to show how people have interacted with a range of natural features.
Senior
Phase
(6) Attitudes, values and perceptions regarding the environment are examined by:
  • identifying the attitude and perceptions
  • considering factors that influence attitudes and perceptions
  • reflecting on its origins and development.
Range of attitudes and perceptions, to include
  • conservation of natural, cultural and historical heritages (e.g. game parks, museums, archeological sites)
  • appreciation of natural environments (e.g. silence / aesthetics / back-to-nature possibilities)
  • personal evaluations of places and environments (e.g. as unsafe / inferior)

Factors impacting, to include

  • context
  • historical and individual experience
  • collective memory
  • education
  • interest groups.

Significance of attitudes and values

  • in conflict situations regarding the environment
  • in personal decision making.

The learner is able to come to a reasoned judgement about the influence of various factors on attitudes and values regarding the environment.

Intermediate
Phase
  The learner demonstrates an awareness that values and attitudes about a range of environmental issues are influenced by a range of factors.
Foundation
Phase
  The learner accesses the values and attitudes of others about environmental issues: E.g., through conducting interviews and surveys. Simple graphical techniques could be used to display the results and these could form the basis of debates and discussions around factors influencing people’s attitudes and values.

 7. ADDRESS SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN ORDER TO PROMOTE DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

The central purpose of this outcome is for learners to develop a depth of understanding of issues which effect their lives and the lives of others; as well to develop the analytical and planning skills needed to address such issues within the framework provided by the constitution and the RDP.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 (1) Social and environmental issues related to development and social justice are identified.

RANGE STATEMENTS

Social issues, to include:

  • good global citizenship
  • inequalities in distribution of and access to resources (within and between societies)
  • prejudice and discrimination (based on race, class, gender, age, ability)
  • poverty (e.g. lack of piped water)
  • exploitation (e.g. unfair labour practices; unbalanced trade agreements; some aspects of aid and development policies)
  • crime
  • population / resource imbalances
  • conflict (e.g. resistance; war; genocide; military aggression; persecution)
  • disease (e.g. AIDS, TB and malaria
  • unemployment.

Environmental issues might include:

  • environmental degradation (at various scales, of various kinds)
  • resource depletion;
  • global warming;
  • ozone hole;
  • population pressure.

The learner should provide a reasoned argument, based on evidence from more than one source, justifying the identification of an issue in terms of causation. E.g., environmental degradation resulting from forced resettlement because of Apartheid laws.

Intermediate
Phase
  The learner should be able to justify the identification of an issue in terms of its relevance to development and social justice.
Foundation
Phase
  Issues should be identified in relation to their signficance for the school and wider communities.
Senior
Phase
(2) Identified issues are critically analysed.
  • Account taken of the impact on development of society and the environment.

Contributing factors, to include:

  • environmental
  • economic and social (e.g. actions of groups; attitudes; power relations)
  • interconnections between these factors
  • actions of different groups
  • the RDP and the Constitution.

Different perspectives on issues, to include

  • political ideology
  • religious beliefs
  • culture
  • different contexts
  • different times.

Learners must be able to produce holistic accounts of the issues, involving multiple factors and sources of evidence.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners must be able to relate the issues to at least three factors, the significance of which they justify.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners must be able to identify and explore links between issues and factors.
Senior
Phase
(3) Strategies to address issues are developed and evaluated. Strategies, to take account of :
  • changing attitudes
  • using available resources
  • analysing causes and situations
  • power relations
  • impact of the issue
  • relevant theory
  • consultation
  • the RDP
  • the Constitution.

Evaluation in terms of :

  • feasibility
  • likely benefits and negative responses
  • costs
  • conformity to principles of the constitution and human rights.

In developing strategies learners must be able to predict their outcome based on analyses of current situations. At least one issue should be considered which enables the learner to relate local, provincial and national aspects.

 

Intermediate
Phase
  In developing strategies learners must be able to take multiple factors into account and show how they have effected the outcome.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners must, with the teacher facilitating, be able to produce a coherent plan and justify it in terms of an analysis of the situation. Issues selected must be relevant to the needs of the learners and/or the community and be evaluated with respect to meeting those needs.
Senior
Phase
(4) Strategies are implemented to address particular issues. Issues
local (e.g. lack of security at school) to global (e.g. global warming).

Strategies
individual or collective action.

Activities, to include

  • actions to address local issues (e.g. gangs)
  • actions to address global issues (e.g. conserving energy).

Learners must be able to implement relatively complex strategies which require more than one phase and the involvement of a number of people.

Intermediate
Phase
  Learners must be able to implement strategies which require a number of steps to be identified and taken.
Foundation
Phase
  Learners must be able to implement ‘authentic’ strategies which have observable outcomes. E.g., which impact on the school or community environment.

8. ANALYSE FORMS AND PROCESSES OF ORGANISATIONS

Organisations are broadly defined as those groups of people which were consciously formed for a particular set of purposes: hence families are generally excluded. The purpose of this outcome is chiefly to equip learners to deal with the reality that today we live in societies in which organisations - especially large organisations - play a crucial part in our lives.

PHASE

Senior
Phase

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 (1) The different forms and purposes of organisations are identified by:

  • acquiring information
  • identifying forms and purposes
  • explaining their significance
RANGE STATEMENTS

 Discussions to include finding similarities and differences between large and small, formal and informal, organisations.

Forms, to include:

  • schools, groups, gangs, associations, clubs, congregations, companies, unions, parties, non-governmental organisations.

Purposes, to include:

  • protection and security, provision, production, trade and commerce, recreation, information, mutual benefit, service to others, class/group rights, political interest.

Scale:

  • local, provincial, South African, and Southern African
  • in the present and the past
  • large and small organisations
  • formal and informal organisations. 

One organisation can be studied in depth and from this study inferences drawn about the forms and purpose of organisations.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the main focus will be on investigating the forms and purposes of a range of specific organisations, including school, community and wider.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase the nature of organisations should be explored and discussed through activities such as describing processes and routines they can observe in their school or community.
Senior
Phase
(2) Characteristics of organisations are analysed by:
  • accessing information
  • determining characteristics
  • explaining significance of characteristics.
Discussions to include finding similarities and differences between large and small, formal and informal, organisations.

Characteristics:

  • formal and informal rules
  • hierarchy and management
  • division of functions
  • structure (e.g., departments)
  • membership (open or closed)
  • leadership / management
  • decision-making : democratic and non-democratic forms
  • interest groups within organisations.

Scope:

  • large and small
  • local, provincial and national (clubs, corporations, unions)
  • democratic and non-democratic.

In this phase the main focus must be on organisations related to career, employment or educational opportunities. One organisation can be studied in depth and from this study inferences drawn about the characteristics of organisations.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the main focus will be on investigating characteristics of a range of specific organisations, including school, community and wider.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase the nature of organisations should be explored and discussed through activities such as describing processes and routines they can observe in their school or community.
Senior
Phase
(3) The origin and development of organisations are understood. Discussions to include finding similarities and differences between large and small, formal and informal, organisations.

Aspects of origins to explore:

  • why people came together
  • why decisions were taken (who chose the leaders)
  • what programme was adopted.

Aspects of development to investigate:

  • changes in the organisations goals
  • changes in leadership
  • changes in programmes
  • funding for the organisation
  • changes in structure
  • role of the organisation in the community,
  • community response to the organisation.

In this phase the main focus must be on organisations related to career, employment or educational opportunities. One organisation can be studied in depth and from this study inferences drawn about the origin and development of organisations.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the main focus will be on investigating origin and development of a range of specific organisations, including school, community and wider.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase the nature of organisations should be explored and discussed through activities such as describing processes and routines they can observe in their school or community.
Senior
Phase
(4) Information which can address personal and community needs is obtained by:
  • knowledge of relevant organisations
  • accessing information required
  • processing information
  • getting advice and assistance.
Needs might include:
  • health
  • education
  • careers and employment
  • sport
  • community development
  • school development.

In this phase the main focus must be on organisations related to career, employment or educational opportunities.

Intermediate
Phase
  In this phase the main focus should be on exploring different ways of obtaining information from a range of organisations: e.g., by visits, writing letters, phoning. Needs can express a wide variety of interests, such as sports, hobbies, and questions related to important issues.
Foundation
Phase
  In this phase the information must relate to concrete needs, such as finding out about the organisation of the school; but information about issues and community needs must also be obtained from other organisations.

 9. Demonstrate the ability to use a range of skills and techniques in the Human and Social Sciences context

 For outcomes-based approaches to succeed, learners need to acquire investigative and problem-solving skills. This crucially involves critical thinking, processing information and communicating effectively. In the Human and Social Sciences, certain skills require more attention than they might in other Learning Areas. This outcome is designed to provide a framework for the development of these skills and their application in all the other outcomes.

 Note: Differentiation by phase in range statements has not been done. This is because the skills listed below are intended to be used in the context of all the other specific outcomes, and these have range statements which have been differentiated.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 (1) A critical understanding of the nature and use of sources and evidence is demonstrated by:

  • demonstrating an understanding of the difference between sources and evidence
  • gathering and recording information from sources
  • deducing and synthesising information from sources and evidence
  • showing respect and sensitivity in deriving and using information from human and other sources
  • recognising the integrity of sources
  • recognising the problematic nature of sources and evidence
  • evaluating the reliability of sources and evidence in specific contexts
  • detecting bias in sources and evidence
  • recognising that bias is inherent in knowledge and its use
  • using sources and evidence to formulate arguments and to state a position.

RANGE STATEMENTS

 Examples include:

  • A source provides information; analysing a number of sources might provide evidence for a conclusion to be made.
  • Interviewing someone and writing down what he or she says, in order to find out about what happened long ago.
  • combining different accounts of an event to make a new version.
  • respecting confidentiality
  • appreciating the particular circumstances under which a source was made
  • sources might have been altered; evidence based on source of one kind only might not be valid
  • by comparing different accounts of the same event
  • recognising when someone has promoted his or her own interest, or perspective
  • all knowledge can be biased in some form
  • collecting evidence to use to promote the protection of the environment; writing an account on the basis of the sources found and evidence deduced.
(2) Ability to make informed judgements is demonstrated. The ability includes:
  • clarification of attitudes and values (e.g. recognition of different perspectives on an issue)
  • distinguishing between conflicting values
  • empathising, i.e. understanding people’s behaviour in the context of their circumstances, both past and present (e.g. suspending premature and uninformed judgements of other people’s behaviour; appreciating the opportunities and constraints facing people in different situations)
  • evaluating the merits of different perspectives.
(3) Competence in the application of graphical techniques is demonstrated by :
  • accessing and interpreting graphically represented data
  • representing data graphically
  • translating data from one form of graphical representation to another
  • analysing graphically represented data
  • considering the problems of relevance and bias in graphically represented data
  • using graphically represented data.

 

Types of graphical representation, to include:
  • graphs ( e.g. pie, line, bar); flow diagrams, illustrations (annotated and other); cartoons and other drawings; photographs (vertical, oblique and orthophoto); time lines; maps (e.g. of different scales, areas subject matter, times/dates, areas, showing contours, sketch and accurate)etc.

Interpretation, to include:

  • decoding of symbols and signs
  • recognising shapes and features from different perspectives
  • using a key
  • reading maps(e.g. using scale to measure distance; finding direction and fixing position; using contours to identify landforms and features).

Analysis, to include

  • relationships and patterns (over time and space) rates of change.

Uses:
Making

  • inferences
  • decisions
  • recommendations
  • evaluations.

Explanation, to include

  • proposed routes and other developments
  • impacts of events in the past
  • changes over time
  • differences/similarities from place to place.
(4) Independent and co-operative learning skills that promote critical understanding of social and environmental issues are demonstrated. Skills of working in a group, to include
  • those associated with roles (e.g. facilitator, note-taker)
  • those associated with sharing ideas ( e.g. listening, responding supportively, participating actively, evaluating ideas, accepting critical comment)
  • those associated with synthesising and integrating ideas
  • those associated with managing the process (e.g. keeping time, allocating and taking responsibility for tasks).

Skills of working independently, to include

  • personal skills (e.g. initiative, self discipline)
  • selecting and integrating these two sets of skills as appropriate for the task
  • reflecting on and evaluating processes of individual and group work.
(5) A systematic approach to problem solving in the human and social sciences is demonstrated, by:
  • identifying the problems
  • gathering information by appropriate means
  • analysing the context, components and causes of the problem
  • formulating research questions and hypotheses
  • using various methodologies to gain different perspectives on the problem
  • developing and negotiating strategies to solve the problem
  • using participatory and democratic approaches
  • critiquing proposals
  • taking appropriate action
  • reflecting upon and evaluating the processes and results
  • recording the problem-solving process and its outcomes, reporting and disseminating the results.
Examples include:
  • measuring, interviewing, analysing documents, using questionnaires and surveys
  • the question the research is expected to answer; the anticipated answer (if... then... )
  • choosing a suitable method of research, or more than one
  • communicating proposals to all stakeholders; taking account of feedback
  • in terms of values associated with the constitution and other aspects of human rights; of their impact, for their feasibility
  • considering how successful / unsuccessful they have been and why.
(6) Effective communication in social environments is demonstrated by:
  • Using communication to participate in local, regional and global activities
  • Critically understanding the role of communication in shaping society

Applying outcomes from Language learning in the context of the Human and Social Sciences where applicable

Examples include:
  • accessing media to publicise issues, lobbying, protesting, petitioning, debating
  • the manipulative power of communication and the devices which make this possible; the role of mass media in society.

 


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